# Chemistry

##### Properties and Reactions of Ethanol

What is Ethanol? It is a plant fermentation byproduct which is natural and it can also be produced ...

##### Allylic Carbon

The Modern Periodic table in which all known elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic num ...

##### Preparation of Ethers

There are various methods for the preparation of Ethers. Ethers are the organic compounds containing ...

##### Alkyl Iodide

The alkyl iodides being less stable than the fluorides, chlorides or bromides and also the fact that ...

##### Ethyl Acetate Formula

The formula for ethyl acetate is CH3COOCH2CH3.  Ethyl acetate formula is given here along with it ...

##### Non Aromatic Compounds

What is Non-Aromatic Compounds? The non-aromatic compounds without ring structure are termed alipha ...

##### Ethylene Glycol - C2H6O2

What is Ethylene Glycol? Ethylene Glycol is a dihydroxy alcohol with a chemical formula C2H6O2. Thi ...

##### Uses of Alloys

The use of pure metals for any specific industrial product is rarely seen and the more variation in ...

##### Europium

Symbol Eu Atomic Number 63 Atomic Mass 151.964 amu Discovered by Eugène-Anatole ...

##### Color Spectrum

In electromagnetic radiation, if we draw an oscillating electric field in the plane of the page the ...

##### Evaporation

When you spray perfume on your body, your body feels slightly cooler. The same goes for acetone and ...

##### Anabolism

Anabolism definition Anabolism is a biochemical process in metabolism where the simple molecules co ...

##### Examples of Bases

Examples of bases are sodium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and potassium oxide. A base is a substance ...

##### Born Haber Cycle

What is Born Haber Cycle? The Born–Haber cycle is a method of analyzing reaction energy. Two Germ ...

##### Experiments on Properties of Acids and Base

Aim: To study the properties of acids (dilute HCl) and bases (dilute NaOH) by their reactions with ...

##### Polyethylene Terephthalate

What is Polyethylene Terephthalate? Polymers are macromolecules which are formed by certain repeati ...

##### Extraction of Crude Metal From Concentrated Ore

Metal extraction involves refining of metals from the gangue it is found with. Extraction of metals ...

##### Monomeric Proteins

The monomers played a very significant role as it transpires from high percentage of such structures ...

##### Factors Affecting Solubility

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes in a solvent. Sugar cubes added to a cup ...

##### 118 Elements and Their Symbols and Atomic Numbers

The periodic table of elements is widely used in the field of Chemistry to look up chemical elements ...

##### Fe2O3 - Iron(III) oxide

What is Iron(III) oxide? Fe2O3 is an inorganic compound with a chemical name Iron(III) oxide. It is ...

##### Acetaldehyde - C2H4O

What is Acetaldehyde (C2H4O)? C2H4O is an organic chemical compound with chemical name Acetaldehyde ...

##### Fehling Test

One of the most popular tests used for the estimation or detection of reducing sugars and non-reduci ...

##### Acetate - C2H3O2−

What is Acetate? Acetate is a chemical compound with a formula C2H3O2−. It is also known as Aceta ...

##### Ferric Chloride - FeCl3

What is Ferric Chloride? Ferric Chloride is a chemical compound where the oxidation state of iron i ...

##### Acetone - C3H6O

What is Acetone? Acetone is a highly flammable organic compound. This organic solvent has a chemica ...

##### Fibrous Materials and their Uses

Fiber is a natural or synthetic substance that is known longer than it is wide. Fibrous materials   ...

##### Acetonitrile - C2H3N

What is Acetonitrile? Acetonitrile is a nitrile which is a hydrogen cyanide where the hydrogen (H) ...

##### Finkelstein Reaction

The Finkelstein reaction is a Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction ( $S_{N}2$ Reaction) ...

##### Acetylene Formula

Acetylene is a hydrocarbon and is the simplest alkyne. It has two carbon atoms which are bounded by ...

##### First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Conservation

What is the first law of thermodynamics? We know about internal energy, heat, and work done for a s ...

##### Difference Between Acid and Base

Acids may be defined as the compounds that donate an ion of hydrogen (H+) to another compound (usual ...

##### Fission and Fusion Difference

Fission and fusion reactions are different kinds of chain reactions where energy is released due to ...

##### Acid Base Titration

What is Acid-Base Titration? An acid-base titration is an experimental technique used to acquire in ...

##### Fluorine

Symbol F Atomic Number 9 Atomic Mass B18.998403 g.mol-1 Discovered by H ...

##### Acids and Bases

Acids and bases are popular chemicals which interact with each other resulting in the formation of s ...

##### Food Chemistry

Food Chemistry involves the study of the chemical process of all biological and non-biological eleme ...

##### Acids, Bases and Salts

Many acids and bases occur naturally in nature, such as citric acid in fruits like orange, lemon etc ...

##### Forest Conservation - Why and How?

A forest is a large area which is almost covered with woody vegetation or trees. It is one of the ne ...

##### Acid Test - How to Spot Minerals Separately

Minerals change when we put acid on them. Apparatus and Ingredients Required To Perform The Test B ...

##### Formaldehyde Formula

Formaldehyde formula is given here along with its structure. To recall about formaldehyde, it is als ...

##### Activation Energy

Activation Energy refers to the energy that must be provided to potential reactants in a chemical or ...

##### Formation of Ionic Compounds

Elements can gain or lose electrons in order to attain their nearest noble gas configuration. Format ...

What is an Addition Reaction? In the simplest of terms of organic chemistry, we can say that an add ...

##### Three Different Forms of Water

Water is present almost everywhere. If the earth’s map is observed keenly, it is found that most o ...

There are a number of phenomena that explains various things which we observe in our everyday life. ...

##### Fractional Distillation

What is fractional distillation? Fractional distillation is a type of distillation which involves t ...

What Is adsorption chromatography? Adsorption chromatography is the oldest types of chromatography ...

A fee radical is termed to the molecular kinds which can contain an unpaired electron in their atomi ...

What is Adsorption Isotherm? Adsorption isotherms have been of immense importance to researches dea ...

##### Frenkel Defect

Yakov Frenkel, a Russian physicists was the person who discovered the Frenkel defect while conductin ...

##### Aluminum oxide - Al2O3

What is Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)? Al2O3 is an inorganic chemical reagent with chemical name Aluminum ...

##### Friedel-Crafts Reaction

What is a Friedel-Crafts Reaction? A Friedel-Crafts reaction is an organic coupling reaction involv ...

##### Identification & Conversion of Alcohols

What are the different types of alcohol? On the basis of chemical groups attached to the carbon ato ...

##### Fuel Cell

What is a Fuel Cell? A fuel cell can be defined as an electrochemical cell that generates electrica ...

##### Aldehydes and Ketones

Structure of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C ...

##### Types of Fuels

What is a fuel? According to the law of conservation of energy, it can neither be created nor be de ...

##### Aldol Condensation

Aldol condensation occurs in aldehydes having α-hydrogen with a dilute base to give β-hydroxy alde ...

##### Nucleic Acids - Function of Nucleic Acids

What are Nucleic acids? Nucleic acids are long-chain polymeric molecules, the monomer (the repeati ...

##### IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Earlier, most of the compounds with the same structural formula were known by different names depend ...

Symbol Gd Atomic Number 64 Atomic Mass 157.25 g.mol-1 Discovered by Jea ...

##### Acidity of Alkynes

Alkynes are one of the simplest hydrocarbons known to us. They have a general formula of CnH2n-2 ...

##### Voltaic Cell (Galvanic Cell) - Working, Example

Voltaic cell or galvanic cell is an electrochemical cell which makes use of chemical reactions to ge ...

##### Aluminium Phosphate - AlPO4

What is Aluminium Phosphate? Aluminium phosphate are prepared by exposing soluble aluminium salts t ...

##### Gas: The simplest of all States of Matter

Matter is everywhere: we are made of matter, the pencils you’ve used are made of matter, the water ...

##### Aluminum

Symbol Al Atomic Number 13 Atomic Mass 26.98 amu Discovered by Hans Christian Oer ...

##### Gattermann Reaction

What is gattermann reaction Named after: German chemist, Ludwig Gattermann The gattermann reactio ...

##### Amines

Amines are one of the most important classes of organic compounds which can be derived when we repla ...

##### GeoChemistry

What is geochemistry? The term Geochemistry is obtained from the etymological term Geo + Chemsitry, ...

##### Ammonia - NH3

What is Ammonia? Ammonia is a colorless gas with a chemical formula NH3. It consists of hydrogen an ...

##### Gibbs Energy Change and Criteria for Equilibrium

In order to account for the change in both entropy and enthalpy, J.Willard Gibbs defined a new funct ...

##### Ammonium acetate - C2H7NO2

What is Ammonium acetate? C2H7NO2 is an ammonium salt obtained by reacting ammonia with acetic acid ...

##### Gibbs Free Energy - Relation Emf of a cell and Gibbs free energy

What is Gibbs free energy? Gibbs Free Energy is defined as the thermodynamic potential that signi ...

##### Ammonium Chloride - NH4Cl

What is Ammonium Chloride? NH4Cl is an inorganic compound with chemical name Ammonium Chloride. It ...

##### Glucose - C6H12O6

What is Glucose? Glucose is a simple sugar with six carbon atoms and one aldehyde group. This monos ...

##### Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)

What is Ammonium Nitrate? Ammonium nitrate is an ionic salt made up of the ammonium cation (NH4)+ a ...

##### Glutamine

What is Glutamine? Glutamine is one of the non-essential amino acids which is encoded by CAA and CA ...

##### Ammonium persulfate - (NH4)2S2O8

What is Ammonium persulfate? (NH4)2S2O8 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Ammonium persul ...

##### Glycerol Formula

Glycerol formula is given here along with its structural and extended chemical formula. Glycerol is ...

##### Ammonium Sulfate - (NH4)2SO4

What is Ammonium Sulfate? Ammonium Sulfate is an inorganic salt with a chemical formula (NH4)2SO4. ...

##### What is Glycogen?

What is Glycogen? Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage i ...

##### Analgesics - The drug to relieve all pain

We all suffer from some kind of physical pain in our daily lives and to overcome that pain we end up ...

##### Graham's Law: Diffusion and Effusion

Diffusion Diffusion is a phenomenon where there is a movement of one material move from area of hig ...

##### Anilines

Anilines – Meaning Have you ever wondered what the cause for the blue color of your jeans you wea ...

##### Gravimetric Analysis

What is Gravimetric Analysis? Gravimetric analysis is a method in analytical chemistry to determine ...

##### Cations and Anions - Difference Between Anions and Cations

Cations and anions introduction: Ions which are a part of the science subject Chemistry forms from ...

##### Grignard Reaction Mechanism

Grignard reaction mechanism explains the addition of alkyl/vinyl/aryl magnesium halides to any carbo ...

##### Antacids

What are Antacids? Sometimes due to overproduction of acids, we feel an irritation in the stomach ...

##### Halogens - Trends in Chemical and Physical Properties

The group 17 of the modern periodic table consists of: Fluorine Chlorine Bromine ...

##### How do Antibiotics Help Humans Fight With Their Diseases?

What are Antibiotics Antibiotics are medicines that are used to treat as well as prevent bacterial ...

##### Gum Arabic

Gum arabic or gum acacia is a tree exudate obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal. I ...

##### Antihistamine - Treatment for Allergies

What is Antihistamine? Antihistamine is a class of drugs that inhibit the physiological action of h ...

##### Hafnium

Symbol Hf Atomic Number 72 Atomic Mass 178.49 g.mol −1 Discovered by George Cha ...

##### Antimicrobial Agents - An Overview

What are Antimicrobial Agents? Infections and diseases may be caused by the different type of organ ...

##### Halides

What are Halides? Halides are binary compounds that are of which one part is an element another pa ...

##### Elementary Idea of Antioxidants

What are Antioxidants? Substances that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules are called antioxid ...

##### Haloform Reaction Mechanism

Haloform reaction mechanism starts with the disproportionation of the halogen with the presence of t ...

##### Argon Gas - Ar

What is Argon Gas? Argon is the first noble gas to be discovered. It was identified by English phys ...