Chemistry

Properties and Reactions of Ethanol

What is Ethanol? It is a plant fermentation byproduct which is natural and it can also be produced through ...

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Allylic Carbon

The Modern Periodic table in which all known elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic number. ...

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Preparation of Ethers

There are various methods for the preparation of Ethers. Ethers are the organic compounds containing ...

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Alkyl Iodide

The alkyl iodides being less stable than the fluorides, chlorides or bromides and also the fact that ...

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Ethyl Acetate Formula

The formula for ethyl acetate is CH3COOCH2CH3.  Ethyl acetate formula is given here along with its ...

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Non Aromatic Compounds

What is Non-Aromatic Compounds? The non-aromatic compounds without ring structure are termed aliphatic ...

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Ethylene Glycol - C2H6O2

What is Ethylene Glycol? Ethylene Glycol is a dihydroxy alcohol with a chemical formula C2H6O2. This ...

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Uses of Alloys

The use of pure metals for any specific industrial product is rarely seen and the more variation in the ...

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Europium

Symbol Eu Atomic Number 63 Atomic Mass 151.964 amu Discovered by Eugène-Anatole Demarçay ...

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Color Spectrum

In electromagnetic radiation, if we draw an oscillating electric field in the plane of the page the magnetic ...

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Evaporation

When you spray perfume on your body, your body feels slightly cooler. The same goes for acetone and water. ...

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Anabolism

Anabolism definition Anabolism is a biochemical process in metabolism where the simple molecules combine ...

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Examples of Bases

Examples of bases are sodium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and potassium oxide. A base is a substance ...

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Born Haber Cycle

What is Born Haber Cycle? The Born–Haber cycle is a method of analyzing reaction energy. Two German ...

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Experiments on Properties of Acids and Base

Aim: To study the properties of acids (dilute HCl) and bases (dilute NaOH) by their reactions with the ...

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Polyethylene Terephthalate

What is Polyethylene Terephthalate? Polymers are macromolecules which are formed by certain repeating ...

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Extraction of Crude Metal From Concentrated Ore

Metal extraction involves refining of metals from the gangue it is found with. Extraction of metals occur ...

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Monomeric Proteins

The monomers played a very significant role as it transpires from high percentage of such structures ...

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Factors Affecting Solubility

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes in a solvent. Sugar cubes added to a cup of ...

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118 Elements and Their Symbols and Atomic Numbers

The periodic table of elements is widely used in the field of Chemistry to look up chemical elements ...

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Fe2O3 - Iron(III) oxide

What is Iron(III) oxide? Fe2O3 is an inorganic compound with a chemical name Iron(III) oxide. It is ...

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Acetaldehyde - C2H4O

What is Acetaldehyde (C2H4O)? C2H4O is an organic chemical compound with chemical name Acetaldehyde. ...

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Fehling Test

One of the most popular tests used for the estimation or detection of reducing sugars and non-reducing ...

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Acetate - C2H3O2−

What is Acetate? Acetate is a chemical compound with a formula C2H3O2−. It is also known as Acetate ...

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Ferric Chloride - FeCl3

What is Ferric Chloride? Ferric Chloride is a chemical compound where the oxidation state of iron is ...

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Acetone - C3H6O

What is Acetone? Acetone is a highly flammable organic compound. This organic solvent has a chemical ...

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Fibrous Materials and their Uses

Fiber is a natural or synthetic substance that is known longer than it is wide. Fibrous materials  have ...

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Acetonitrile - C2H3N

What is Acetonitrile? Acetonitrile is a nitrile which is a hydrogen cyanide where the hydrogen (H) is ...

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Finkelstein Reaction

The Finkelstein reaction is a Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction ( \(S_{N}2\) Reaction) involves ...

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Acetylene Formula

Acetylene is a hydrocarbon and is the simplest alkyne. It has two carbon atoms which are bounded by a ...

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First Law of Thermodynamics and Energy Conservation

What is the first law of thermodynamics? We know about internal energy, heat, and work done for a system ...

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Difference Between Acid and Base

Acids may be defined as the compounds that donate an ion of hydrogen (H+) to another compound (usually ...

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Fission and Fusion Difference

Fission and fusion reactions are different kinds of chain reactions where energy is released due to the ...

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Acid Base Titration

What is Acid-Base Titration? An acid-base titration is an experimental technique used to acquire information ...

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Fluorine

  Symbol F Atomic Number 9 Atomic Mass B18.998403 g.mol-1 Discovered by Henri ...

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Acids and Bases

Acids and bases are popular chemicals which interact with each other resulting in the formation of salt ...

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Food Chemistry

Food Chemistry involves the study of the chemical process of all biological and non-biological elements ...

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Acids, Bases and Salts

Many acids and bases occur naturally in nature, such as citric acid in fruits like orange, lemon etc, ...

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Forest Conservation - Why and How?

A forest is a large area which is almost covered with woody vegetation or trees. It is one of the necessary ...

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Acid Test - How to Spot Minerals Separately

Minerals change when we put acid on them. Apparatus and Ingredients Required To Perform The Test Below ...

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Formaldehyde Formula

Formaldehyde formula is given here along with its structure. To recall about formaldehyde, it is also ...

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Activation Energy

Activation Energy refers to the energy that must be provided to potential reactants in a chemical or ...

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Formation of Ionic Compounds

Elements can gain or lose electrons in order to attain their nearest noble gas configuration. Formation ...

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Addition Reaction

What is an Addition Reaction? In the simplest of terms of organic chemistry, we can say that an addition ...

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Three Different Forms of Water

Water is present almost everywhere. If the earth’s map is observed keenly, it is found that most of ...

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Adhesion and Cohesion

There are a number of phenomena that explains various things which we observe in our everyday life. Although, ...

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Fractional Distillation

What is fractional distillation? Fractional distillation is a type of distillation which involves the ...

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Adsorption Chromatography

What Is adsorption chromatography? Adsorption chromatography is the oldest types of chromatography technique. ...

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Free Radicals Definition

A fee radical is termed to the molecular kinds which can contain an unpaired electron in their atomic ...

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Adsorption Isotherms

What is Adsorption Isotherm? Adsorption isotherms have been of immense importance to researches dealing ...

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Frenkel Defect

Yakov Frenkel, a Russian physicists was the person who discovered the Frenkel defect while conducting ...

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Aluminum oxide - Al2O3

What is Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)? Al2O3 is an inorganic chemical reagent with chemical name Aluminum oxide. ...

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Friedel-Crafts Reaction

What is a Friedel-Crafts Reaction? A Friedel-Crafts reaction is an organic coupling reaction involving ...

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Identification & Conversion of Alcohols

What are the different types of alcohol? On the basis of chemical groups attached to the carbon atom, ...

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Fuel Cell

What is a Fuel Cell? A fuel cell can be defined as an electrochemical cell that generates electrical ...

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Aldehydes and Ketones

Structure of Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. ...

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Types of Fuels

What is a fuel? According to the law of conservation of energy, it can neither be created nor be destroyed, ...

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Aldol Condensation

Aldol condensation occurs in aldehydes having α-hydrogen with a dilute base to give β-hydroxy aldehydes ...

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Nucleic Acids - Function of Nucleic Acids

What are Nucleic acids? Nucleic acids are long-chain polymeric molecules, the monomer (the repeating ...

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IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes

Earlier, most of the compounds with the same structural formula were known by different names depending ...

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Gadolinium

  Symbol Gd Atomic Number 64 Atomic Mass 157.25 g.mol-1 Discovered by Jean ...

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Acidity of Alkynes

  Alkynes are one of the simplest hydrocarbons known to us. They have a general formula of CnH2n-2. ...

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Voltaic Cell (Galvanic Cell) - Working, Example

Voltaic cell or galvanic cell is an electrochemical cell which makes use of chemical reactions to generate ...

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Aluminium Phosphate - AlPO4

What is Aluminium Phosphate? Aluminium phosphate are prepared by exposing soluble aluminium salts to ...

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Gas: The simplest of all States of Matter

Matter is everywhere: we are made of matter, the pencils you’ve used are made of matter, the water ...

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Aluminum

Symbol Al Atomic Number 13 Atomic Mass 26.98 amu Discovered by Hans Christian Oersted ...

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Gattermann Reaction

What is gattermann reaction Named after: German chemist, Ludwig Gattermann The gattermann reaction ...

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Amines

Amines are one of the most important classes of organic compounds which can be derived when we replace ...

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GeoChemistry

What is geochemistry? The term Geochemistry is obtained from the etymological term Geo + Chemsitry, ...

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Ammonia - NH3

What is Ammonia? Ammonia is a colorless gas with a chemical formula NH3. It consists of hydrogen and ...

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Gibbs Energy Change and Criteria for Equilibrium

In order to account for the change in both entropy and enthalpy, J.Willard Gibbs defined a new function, ...

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Ammonium acetate - C2H7NO2

What is Ammonium acetate? C2H7NO2 is an ammonium salt obtained by reacting ammonia with acetic acid. ...

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Gibbs Free Energy - Relation Emf of a cell and Gibbs free energy

What is Gibbs free energy? Gibbs Free Energy is defined as the thermodynamic potential that signifies ...

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Ammonium Chloride - NH4Cl

What is Ammonium Chloride? NH4Cl is an inorganic compound with chemical name Ammonium Chloride. It is ...

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Glucose - C6H12O6

What is Glucose? Glucose is a simple sugar with six carbon atoms and one aldehyde group. This monosaccharide ...

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Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)

What is Ammonium Nitrate? Ammonium nitrate is an ionic salt made up of the ammonium cation (NH4)+ and ...

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Glutamine

What is Glutamine? Glutamine is one of the non-essential amino acids which is encoded by CAA and CAG. ...

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Ammonium persulfate - (NH4)2S2O8

What is Ammonium persulfate? (NH4)2S2O8 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Ammonium persulfate. ...

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Glycerol Formula

Glycerol formula is given here along with its structural and extended chemical formula. Glycerol is also ...

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Ammonium Sulfate - (NH4)2SO4

What is Ammonium Sulfate? Ammonium Sulfate is an inorganic salt with a chemical formula (NH4)2SO4. It ...

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What is Glycogen?

What is Glycogen? Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in ...

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Analgesics - The drug to relieve all pain

We all suffer from some kind of physical pain in our daily lives and to overcome that pain we end up ...

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Graham's Law: Diffusion and Effusion

Diffusion Diffusion is a phenomenon where there is a movement of one material move from area of high ...

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Anilines

Anilines – Meaning Have you ever wondered what the cause for the blue color of your jeans you wear ...

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Gravimetric Analysis

What is Gravimetric Analysis? Gravimetric analysis is a method in analytical chemistry to determine ...

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Cations and Anions - Difference Between Anions and Cations

Cations and anions introduction: Ions which are a part of the science subject Chemistry forms from atoms ...

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Grignard Reaction Mechanism

Grignard reaction mechanism explains the addition of alkyl/vinyl/aryl magnesium halides to any carbonyl ...

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Antacids

What are Antacids? Sometimes due to overproduction of acids, we feel an irritation in the stomach ...

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Halogens - Trends in Chemical and Physical Properties

The group 17 of the modern periodic table consists of: Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine These ...

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How do Antibiotics Help Humans Fight With Their Diseases?

What are Antibiotics Antibiotics are medicines that are used to treat as well as prevent bacterial infections. ...

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Gum Arabic

Gum arabic or gum acacia is a tree exudate obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal. It ...

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Antihistamine - Treatment for Allergies

What is Antihistamine? Antihistamine is a class of drugs that inhibit the physiological action of histamines. ...

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Hafnium

Symbol Hf Atomic Number 72 Atomic Mass 178.49 g.mol −1 Discovered by George Charles ...

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Antimicrobial Agents - An Overview

What are Antimicrobial Agents? Infections and diseases may be caused by the different type of organisms ...

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Halides

What are Halides? Halides are binary compounds that are of which one part is an element another part ...

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Elementary Idea of Antioxidants

What are Antioxidants? Substances that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules are called antioxidants. ...

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Haloform Reaction Mechanism

Haloform reaction mechanism starts with the disproportionation of the halogen with the presence of the ...

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Argon Gas - Ar

What is Argon Gas? Argon is the first noble gas to be discovered. It was identified by English physicist ...

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Harmful Effects of Radiation

Radiation can be defined as the transmission or emission of energy in the form of particles or waves ...

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Aromatic Hydrocarbons

The aromatic hydrocarbons are “unsaturated hydrocarbons which have one or more planar six-carbon rings ...

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