|Discovered by||Cadmium was discovered by Friedrich Stromeyer|
Chemical Properties of Cadmium
|Group||12||Melting point||321.069°C, 609.924°F, 594.219 K|
|Period||5||Boiling point||767°C, 1413°F, 1040 K|
|Block||d||Density (g cm−3)||8.69|
|Atomic number||48||Relative atomic mass||112.414|
|State at 20°C||Solid||Key isotopes||114 Cd|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 4d10 5s2||CAS number||7440-43-9|
What is Cadmium?
Cadmium is a soft bluish-white metal with atomic number 48 and represented with the symbol Cd in the periodic table.
Cadmium is a natural element in the earth’s crust. It is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements such as oxygen, chlorine, or sulfur. Most soil and rocks, including coal and mineral fertilizers, contain some cadmium. It enters the environment through wind, rain and mining operations. Volcanoes and Forest fires also release this natural element into the air.
Cadmium is the second-row transition metal belonging to group 12 of the periodic table, along with Zn and Hg. The element has an atomic number of 48, an atomic mass of 112, one main oxidation state (+2) and eight naturally occurring isotopes (106 Cd, 108 Cd and 110 Cd to 116 Cd), of which 114 Cd, 112 Cd, 111 Cd, 110 Cd and 113 Cd have abundances of 28.73%, 24.13%, 12.80%, 12.49% and 12.22% respectively (Smith 1999b). The chemistry of cadmium is most similar to that of Zn.
Uses of Cadmium
Cadmium is used in a number of industries, such as welding and soldering, production of iron, steel and cement and production of nickel-cadmium batteries found in mobile phones and cordless equipment. The amount of cadmium is increased in the environment by forest fires and volcanoes, although the largest increase is due to the burning of fossil fuels, use of phosphate fertilizers and industrial processes.
Cadmium and its compounds are used in several consumer products such as in nickel-cadmium batteries and for electroplating other metals Cadmium is also used in various industrial processes such as printing, textiles, photography, lasers and solar cells.