Glucose is a simple sugar with six carbon atoms and one aldehyde group. This monosaccharide has a chemical formula C6H12O6. It is also known as dextrose. It is referred to as aldohexose as it contains 6 carbon atoms and an aldehyde group. It can open in two forms, open-chain or ring structure. It is synthesized in the liver and kidneys of animals.
In plants, it is found in fruits and in different parts of plants. D- glucose is the naturally occurring form of glucose. It can occur either in the solid or liquid form. It is water-soluble and is also soluble in acetic acid. It is odourless and sweet to taste. In the year 1747, Andreas Marggraf a German chemist isolated glucose from raisins. In the year 1838, Jean Baptiste Dumas coined the word glucose.
|Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass||180.16 g/mol|
|Melting Point||146 °C|
Glucose can be called as aldohexose as well as dextrose. It is a monomer of many larger compounds such as carbohydrates, starch, and cellulose. On earth, this is the most abundant organic compounds. On the basis of the following evidence it was assigned the structure illustrated above:
It has a molecular formula of C6H12O6
When HI is heated for a long time, n-hexane is formed which indicates that all the six carbon atoms are linked in a straight chain.
The oxime is formed when glucose reacts with hydroxylamine and cyanohydrins on the addition of hydrogen cyanide to it. This reaction can confirm the presence of the carbonyl group in glucose.
On the reaction of glucose with a mild oxidising agent like bromine water, the glucose gets oxidized to a carboxylic acid that contains six carbon atoms. This indicates that the carbonyl group is present as an aldehyde group.
The presence of -OH group is confirmed after the acetylation of glucose with acetic acid which gives glucose pentaacetate.
Glucose as well as gluconic acid both yields dicarboxylic acid and saccharic acid on oxidation with nitric acid. The presence of primary alcohol is indicated by this.
It is used in the treatment of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
It is given to patients who are very sick and cannot eat as it provides carbohydrate calories
It is used in the treatment of increased potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia)
It is used as a precursor for the synthesis of substances