Glutamine is one of the non-essential amino acids which is encoded by CAA and CAG. It is one of the conditional-essential amino acids in few situations such as gastrointestinal disorders or intensive athletic training. This amino acid has one carboxyl group, one amino group along with amide group in the side-chain of the carboxyl group.
The essential amino acids are the ones which are very much necessary in our diets as the body does not synthesize it or builds them for any other chemicals. The non-essential amino acids are synthesized by our body from other chemicals and are also a dietary source.
Glutamine has a molecular formula C5H10N2O3 and is abbreviated as ‘Gln’ or even as ‘Q’. This amino acid is one among the twenty amino acids which are needed by human beings and animals to function properly. This element is said to be vital in the synthesis of protein, donation of carbon and nitrogen and for the cellular energy as well as for functioning of kidney. The glutamine structure is what all that makes it a special kind of amino acid.
This amino acid plays a vital role when related to stress. The stress which is caused by trauma, burns, excessive exercise and the various diseases like cancer very often result in the glutamine deficiency. It provides a number of important functions and also develops supplement helping the body to recover from the stress.
The structure of Glutamine is as shown in the figure below.
The side chain of this glutamine is known as a simple amide or amino group – NH2. It is located in the end region of the R-group. It consists of other group called as the carboxylic group on the other end of the carbon atom. Glutamine is usually a linear molecule which behaves as a polar molecule having positive and negative charges. The amino acid is considered to be water-loving as it is polar in nature.
Glutamine consists of other 2-molecules naming glutamate and the ammonia with the use of an enzyme called as glutamine synthetase. This is mostly done in the muscles and sometimes in the lungs, brain tissues and the liver.
The human body synthesizes more amount of glutamine which is further involved in numerous biochemical process of life. It involves the metabolic process occurring in kidney and the liver, etc. Some of the functions and glutamine uses are as follows.
Glutamine helps in the synthesis of proteins in the human body.
It helps the body in the formation of energy and this amino acid is said to be the highest concentration of a free-floating amino acid within the blood.
Glutamine is said to have the capability of donating carbon and nitrogen atoms in various processes such as anabolic, metabolic, cell divisions and etc.
It helps in regulating the acid-base balance within the kidneys by producing enough amount of ammonium.
It helps in the synthesis of lipids in the cancer cells.