Hydrazine - N2H4

What is Hydrazine?

N2H4 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Hydrazine. It is also called as Diamine or Diazane or Nitrogen hydride and is a strong base. It is an azane and dangerously unstable. Each subunit of H2N-N is pyramidal and the N−N bond distance is about 1.45 Å. Diamine in its anhydrous form, is a colorless, fuming oily liquid which smells like ammonia. It has a flash point value of 99°F. In case if traces of air is present during the process of distillation, it explodes. It is toxic and corrosive to tissues. When it undergoes combustion, it generates toxic oxides of nitrogen.

Properties of Hydrazine – N2H4



Molecular weight/molar mass of N2H4

32.0452 g/mol

Density of Hydrazine

1.021 g/cm3

Boiling Point of Hydrazine

114 °C

Melting Point of Hydrazine

2 °C

Hydrazine structure – N2H4


Production of Hydrazine

Diamine can be obtained from hydrogen peroxide and ammonia in the ketazine process or Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann process. The reaction is as follows:

2NH3 + H2O2 → H2NNH2 + 2H2O

Chloramine reacts with ammonia to generate nitrogen–nitrogen single bond and hydrogen chloride as byproducts. The reaction is as follows:

NH2Cl + NH3 → H2NNH2 +HCl

N2H4 Uses (Hydrazine)

  • Hydrazine is used as a propellant in space vehicles.
  • It is used as a precursor in several pharmaceutical products.
  • It is used as a reducing agent for selenium, arsenic, and tellurium
  • It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling water reactor.
  • It is used in the process of electrolytic plating of metals on plastic and glass.
  • Used in the manufacturing of agricultural chemicals.
  • Used as a solvent for inorganic compounds.

Health hazards

Usually the targeted organs which get infected are respiratory system, central nervous system (CNS), eyes, and skin. Chronic exposure can cause kidney and liver damage. Fire will generate corrosive, toxic and irritating gases. Its vapours can cause suffocation or dizziness.