Chemistry

Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity

Thermodynamics in its totality is concerned about heat. The meaning of heat today is the energy in t ...

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Arrhenius Equation: The Dependence Of Rate Constant On Temperature

We all know that most of the chemical reaction rates increase with an increase in temperature. It ha ...

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Different Modes of Heat Transfer

Different Modes of Heat Transfer In our everyday life, it has been observed that when a pan full of ...

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Artificial Sweeteners and Sweetening Agents

Artificial Sweetener / Sweetening Agents Natural sweeteners like sucrose and fructose give sweetnes ...

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

What is Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle? Heisenberg, a German scientist stated the principle of un ...

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Asparagine: An α-Amino Acid

What is Asparagine? Asparagine is an alpha-amino acid among twenty amino acids that are found in a ...

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Hell Volhard Zelinsky Reaction Mechanism

Hell Volhard Zelinsky Reaction Mechanism is quite different from other halogenation reactions as it ...

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Astatine

Symbol At Atomic Number 85 Atomic Mass [210] Discovered by Astatine was discovere ...

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Henry's Law

William Henry, an English chemist created the gas law from the studies that he conducted in the init ...

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Atomic and Molecular Masses

Atomic mass Atoms are very small particles and therefore their masses are also extremely small. Now ...

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Heterogeneous Equilibrium

When the state of equilibrium in a system has components in more than one phase it is termed as a he ...

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Avogadro's Law

What is Avogadro’s law? Avogadro’s law statement – Under constant temperature and pressure, ...

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Hexagonal Close Packing Formula

Crystalline solids exhibit a regular and repeating pattern of constituent particles. The diagrammati ...

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Bakelite: Structure and Uses

What is Bakelite? Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. This pheno ...

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Hexane - C6H14

What is Hexane? Hexane is an unbranched hydrocarbon with formula C6H14. Hexane is a nonpolar molecu ...

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Balancing of Chemical Equation Based on Reactants and Products

Balanced chemical equation The representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols (substa ...

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Hinsberg Reagent

What is Hinsberg Reagent? Hinsberg reagent is an alternative name for benzene sulfonyl chloride. Th ...

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Balz Schiemann Reaction Mechanism

Balz Schiemann Reaction Mechanism details the preparation and subsequent thermal decomposition of an ...

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Hoffmann Bromamide Reaction Mechanism

Hoffmann bromamide reaction mechanism generally includes the use of an alkali as a strong base to at ...

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Barium bromide - BaBr2

What is Barium bromide? BaBr2 is an important chemical compound with chemical name Barium bromide. ...

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Holmium

  Symbol Ho Atomic Number 67 Atomic Mass 164.930 Discovered by Holmium wa ...

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Barium Chloride - BaCl2

What is Barium Chloride? Barium Chloride is an inorganic salt which arises due to the direct reacti ...

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Homologous Series

What is Homologous series? Homologous series is a series of compounds with similar chemical proper ...

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Barium Iodide - BaI2

What is Barium Iodide? Barium iodide (Bal2) obtained by the decomposition of the barium by means of ...

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Diatomic Molecules - Homonuclear Diatomic & Bond Order

What are Diatomic molecules? Molecules formed upon the bonding of two same elements are known as h ...

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Barium oxide - BaO

What is Barium oxide? BaO is a hygroscopic compound with chemical name Barium oxide. It is also cal ...

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Catalysis - How does a catalyst work?

What is a catalyst? What is catalysis Catalysts, by their definition, is a substance that increases ...

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EMF of a cell & Cell notation

What is EMF EMF is abbreviated as the electromotive force which is defined as the maximum potential ...

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How to Find Atomic Mass

To find Atomic mass, it is important to understand whether the given sample is an atom, a sample con ...

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BCC, FCC and Primitive Cubic Unit Cell

The 3D arrangement of atoms, molecules or ions inside a crystal is called a crystal lattice. It is m ...

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How to Prepare Carboxylic acids

Preparation of Carboxylic acids The compound in which the carbonyl group is attached to hydroxyl ...

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Benzene - C6H6

Introduction to Benzene Benzene is one of the most important organic compounds with the chemical fo ...

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Hund's Rule

Aufbau principle tells us that the lowest energy orbitals get filled by electrons first. After the l ...

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Benzene: Physical and Chemical Properties

Benzene is a cyclic hydrocarbon with a chemical formula C6H6, that is, each carbon atom in benzene ...

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Hydrazine - N2H4

What is Hydrazine? N2H4 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Hydrazine. It is also called as ...

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Benzoic Acid - C6H5COOH

What is Benzoic Acid? Benzoic acid is an organic compound which is described by the chemical formul ...

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Hydrobromic Acid - HBr

What is Hydrobromic Acid? Hydrobromic acid is a powerful acid formed in water by dissolving bromide ...

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Benzoyl Peroxide

What is Benzoyl Peroxide? Benzoyl peroxide is an organic compound which has the chemical formula C1 ...

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Hydrocyanic Acid - HCN

What is Hydrocyanic Acid? Hydrocyanic acid is a liquid of hydrogen cyanide in water. The chemical f ...

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Berkelium

  Symbol Bk Atomic Number 97 Atomic Mass 247 amu Discovered by Stanley Th ...

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The Chemistry Behind Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

In Chemistry, even though Hydrogen Chloride and Chlorine are different elements we tend to study the ...

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Bicarbonates

Bicarbonates are the intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. It is a polyatomic ani ...

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Hydrogen Fuel

Students interested in Chemistry should have certainly acquainted themselves with the term Hydrogen. ...

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Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable Polymers

Most of us might have observed that whenever we dump household solid wastes at dumpsites, a part of ...

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Hydrogen - Position In The Periodic Table

Hydrogen is the first element of the periodic table as its atomic number is one, which means it has ...

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Biopolymers

Biopolymers are polymers that are produced by living organisms. They are generally polymers of starc ...

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Hydrogen Sulfate - HSO4-

What is Hydrogen sulfate? Hydrogen Sulfate is an anion with the chemical formula HSO4–. It forms ...

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Bismuth

  Symbol Bi Atomic Number 83 Atomic Mass 208.980 Discovered by French ch ...

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is common form of a chemical reaction where water is mostly used to break down the chemic ...

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Bleaching Powder and Sodium hydroxide: Common Salt

Common Salt (Sodium Chloride) Common salt is formed by the reaction between hydrochloric acid and ...

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Hydroxide - OH−

What is Hydroxide? OH− is a diatomic anion with chemical name Hydroxide. It is also called Hydrox ...

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Niels Bohr Atomic Model and Limitations

Bohr’s Theory – Bohr’s Atomic Model Thomson’s atomic model and Rutherford’s atomic mode ...

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Hypochlorite - ClO-

What is Hypochlorite? Hypochlorite is an oxyacid of chlorine which contains monovalent chlorine tha ...

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Bond Dissociation Enthalpy

Bond dissociation enthalpy can be defined as the standard change in enthalpy when a bond is cleaved ...

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HOI - Hypoiodous Acid

What is Hypoiodous Acid? Hypoiodous acid is a greenish-yellow solution with the chemical formula HO ...

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Borax Formula

Borax formula, also known as sodium borate formula, sodium tetraborate formula or disodium tetrabora ...

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Ideal Solution

What is an Ideal Solution? An ideal solution is a mixture in which the molecules of different speci ...

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Boron

Symbol B Atomic Number 5 Atomic Mass 204.383 g.mol -1 Discovered by Sir William C ...

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Importance of Air for the Survival of Life

Air is the constant pressure that we feel around us but can never see. The observable effects of air ...

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The Boron Family in the Periodic Table

  Group 13 Boiling point 4000oC, 4273K, 7232oF Period 2 Melting point 2077oC, 235 ...

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Importance of Polysaccharides

When a large number of monosaccharide units are joined together by a glycosidic linkage then polysac ...

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Bravais Lattice

Bravais Lattice refers to the 14 different 3-dimensional configurations into which atoms can be arra ...

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Important Compounds of Silicon

Silica and silicates are the most abundant compounds on the earth’s crust(around 95%). Silicon dio ...

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Bromothymol Blue - C27H28Br2O5S

What is Bromothymol blue? Bromothymol Blue is an indicator in the pH range from 6.0 to 7.6. Bromoth ...

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Indium

  Symbol In Atomic Number 49 Atomic Mass 114.82 g.mol-1 Discovered by Fer ...

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Brown Ring Test

To determine the presence of nitrate ion in any solution, a chemical test called a nitrate test is c ...

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IR Spectroscopy

IR spectroscopy (which is short for infrared spectroscopy) deals with the infrared region of the ele ...

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Butanoic acid - C4H8O2

What is Butanoic acid? Butanoic acid is an oily colourless liquid with the chemical formula . It is ...

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Integrated Rate Equation

An equation representing the dependence of the rate of reaction on the concentration of reacting spe ...

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Calcium Chloride - CaCl2

What is Calcium Chloride (CaCl2)? CaCl2 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Calcium Chlorid ...

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Interdependence of Plants and Animals

What do you eat? Rice, roti, chicken burgers, french fries, orange juice and so many other things. W ...

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Cadmium

Symbol Cd Atomic Number 48 Atomic Mass 112.414 Discovered by Cadmium was discover ...

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Intermolecular Forces vs Thermal Interactions

Chemical substances exist in different physical states – solid, liquid and gas. Let us take the ex ...

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Calcium

Symbol Ca Atomic Number 20 Atomic Mass 40.08 g.mol -1 Discovered by Humphry Davy ...

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Introduction to Carbon and its Compounds

Carbon compounds are present everywhere i.e. in the food that we eat, the clothes that we wear and e ...

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Calcium Carbide - CaC2

What is Calcium Carbide (CaC2)? CaC2 is a chemical compound with chemical name Calcium Carbide. It ...

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Wool: An Introduction

Wool is one of the animal fibres obtained from sheep and some other animals. Animal fibres are the f ...

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Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide, commonly referred to as slaked lime, is described by the chemical formula Ca(OH)2 ...

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Iodine (I)

  Symbol I Atomic Number 53 Atomic Mass 126.9045 g.mol -1 Discovered by B ...

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Ca(NO3)2 - Calcium nitrate

What is Calcium nitrate? Calcium nitrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(NO3) ...

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Iodoform Test

Iodoform test is used to check the presence of carbonyl compounds with the structure R-CO-CH3 or alc ...

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Calcium phosphate - Ca3(PO4)2

What is Calcium phosphate? Calcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with a chemical f ...

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Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond

What is an Ionic Bond? The electrostatic force of attraction which holds the two oppositely charge ...

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How to Calculate the pH of a Weak Acid

The pH scale is what we use to measure the level of acidity and basicity of a substance. It is appro ...

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Ionization Enthalpy

Ionisation enthalpy of an element can be defined as the amount of energy required to remove an elect ...

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Californium

Symbol Cf Atomic Number 98 Atomic Mass 251 g.mol -1 Discovered by Stanley Thompso ...

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Iridium

  Symbol Ir Atomic Number 77 Atomic Mass 192.217 Discovered by Ghiorso in ...

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Introduction to Candle Flame

Candles produce light by releasing heat and all the turn on the candle produces come from a chemical ...

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Extraction of Iron: Application of Metallurgy

Extraction of Iron Extraction of iron from its ore is the third and the penultimate process in the ...

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Carbon (C)

Symbol C Atomic Number 6 Atomic Mass 12.011 Discovered by Carbon was proposed in ...

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Formal Charge and its Properties

What is a Formal Charge? A Formal charge is also known as a Fake Charge. It’s a theoretical char ...

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Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds

Carbon is known to form a number of compounds due to the salient properties it carries with itself. ...

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Isomerism

What is Isomerism? Isomerism is the phenomenon in which more than one compounds have the same chemi ...

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Carbon Disulfide - CS2

What is Carbon Disulfide? CS2 is an organosulfur compound and a volatile liquid with chemical name ...

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Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas

Isothermal expansion In an ideal gas, all the collisions between molecules or atoms are perfectly e ...

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Carbon monoxide - CO

What is Carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide is a colorless gas and is represented as CO. It has one ca ...

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Isotopes of Hydrogen

Three naturally existing isotopes of hydrogen are tritium, deuterium, and protium. Each isotope comp ...

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Carbon Tetrachloride Uses and Its Effects On Environment

Organic compounds that have a halogen group element as a functional group are called haloalkanes or ...

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Potassium Dichromate - K2Cr2O7

Potassium compounds are quite common and are extremely useful for a variety of purposes. Potash and ...

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Carboxyl Group

What is a Carboxyl Group? A Carboxyl Group is a functional organic compound that comprises a doubl ...

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