Chemistry

K2SO4 - Potassium sulfate

What is Potassium sulfate? K2SO4 is an inorganic chemical compound. It is also known as Sulfuric ac ...

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Carboxylic Acid

What is Carboxylic Acid? A Carboxylic Acid is an organic compound containing a carboxyl functional ...

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Preparation of ketones using various methods

Ketones are the organic compound containing carbonyl groups (C=O). The general formula for a ketone ...

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Carbylamine Reaction Mechanism

Carbylamine reaction mechanism includes the addition of amine to the intermediate created from the d ...

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Kjeldahl Method

The Kjeldahl method first came into existence in 1883 and was developed by a Danish chemist named Jo ...

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Catabolism

What is Catabolism? Catabolism is the break down of complex molecules. Catabolism is the breakdown ...

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Kohlrausch Law

What is Kohlrausch Law? Kohlrausch’s law states that the equivalent conductivity of an electrol ...

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Cathode and Anode

An electrode is a substance that helps in the conduction of electricity wherein the electric current ...

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Lactic Acid - C3H6O3

What is Lactic Acid? Lactic Acid is an organic acid with chemical formula C3H6O3. It is also known ...

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Caustic Soda

What is Caustic Soda? Caustic soda is an alkali salt which is also called Lye. It is the common nam ...

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Lactones

Lactones - Meaning Lactones are cyclic organic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, usually formed by ...

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Cellulose - (C6H10O5)n

What is Cellulose? Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth with a chemical formula ...

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Lanthanum

Symbol La Atomic Number 57 Atomic Mass 198.905 g.mol -1 Discovered by Carl Gustav ...

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Centrifugation and Churning Process

We use many milk products; cream, butter, cheese etc. Ever wondered how these milk products are made ...

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Lattice Enthalpy of an Ionic Solid

What is lattice enthalpy? Ionic compounds have a strong molecular force of attraction and they are ...

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Cesium

Symbol Cs Atomic Number 55 Atomic Mass 132.9054 g.mol -1 Discovered by Gustav Kir ...

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Law of Mass Action

What is the Law of Mass Action? The law of mass action states that the rate of a reaction is propor ...

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Charge to Mass Ratio of Electron

The history of the atomic structure and quantum mechanics dates back to the times of Democritus, the ...

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Laws of Chemical Combination for Elements and Compounds

Chemistry is the study of the transformation of matter from one form to the other. These transforma ...

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Chemical Composition

Every day we handle many substances which are chemicals and we even consume them. Table salt (NaCl), ...

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Leaching Process

Leaching Process is used in the extraction of substances from solids. This is achieved by dissolving ...

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Chemical Formula of Common Compounds

Chemistry is said to be a subject mostly comprising of reactions along with formulas. We come across ...

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Lead Acetate - Pb(C2H3O2)2

What is Lead Acetate? Lead Acetate is also known as lead(II) acetate is a white crystalline chemica ...

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Chemical Kinetics: Reaction Rate and Concentration

What is Chemical Kinetics? Chemical Kinetics deals with the study of change in quantity or amount o ...

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Lead iodide - PbI2

What is Lead iodide? PbI2 is a salt with chemical name Lead iodide. It is also called Plumbous iodi ...

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Chemical Properties of Alkenes

What are Alkenes Alkenes consist of a large number of loosely held pi bonds. Due to the presence of ...

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Lewis Electron Dot Structures

What is Electron Dot Structure? Electron dot structures or Lewis dot formula can be drawn if the mo ...

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Chemical Reactions of Amines - Acylation and Basicity

What are Amines? Amines are organic compounds and functional groups which contain a nitrogen atom w ...

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Limitations of Octet Rule

Octet rule deals with the stability of an atom. According to this rule, an atom is stable if its out ...

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Chemical Properties of Metals

The elements are classified as metals and non-metals based on several chemical and physical properti ...

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Conditions for LCAO (Linear Combination of Atomic orbitals)

What is meant by LCAO (Linear Combination of Atomic orbitals)? The Linear combination of atomic or ...

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Important Chemical Reactions for Class 12 Chemistry

Here are some important chemical reactions which every student of class 12 must have a thorough unde ...

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Liquefaction of Gases

Liquefaction Of Gases has an wide importance. Thomas Andrews investigated the complete relationship ...

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Chemistry Laws

Chemistry is all around us, from the air we breathe to the food we eat, chemistry is involved in it ...

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LiBr - Lithium Bromide

What is Lithium Bromide? Lithium bromide is a chemical compound with the formula LiBr. It is solubl ...

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Chlorine - Cl

What is Chlorine? Chlorine is the second lightest halogen and is represented as Cl. The atomic numb ...

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Lithium Hydroxide - LiOH

What is Lithium hydroxide? Lithium hydroxide is formed when lithium reacts with water in a test tub ...

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Chlorine Gas - Cl2

What is Chlorine gas? Chlorine is a green yellow gas with a very pungent odour that is twice as den ...

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Lucas Test

Lucas test is used to differentiate and categorize primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols using a ...

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Chloroacetic acid - C2H3O2Cl

What is Chloroacetic acid? C2H3O2Cl is an organochlorine compound with chemical name Chloroacetic a ...

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Lysine

What is Lysine? Lysine is the amino acid which is found in different food in the form of the prote ...

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Chloroform: Its Uses and Effects on the Environment

Chloroform, also referred to as trichloromethane is an organic compound. Each molecule of trichlorom ...

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Magnesium Bicarbonate - Mg(HCO3)2

What is Magnesium Bicarbonate? Magnesium Bicarbonate is an unstable compound of magnesium in solid ...

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Chromate - CrO42-

What is Chromate? Chromates are the salts of chromic acid which contains the chromate anion with ch ...

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Magnesium Chloride - MgCl2

What is Magnesium Chloride? MgCl2 can be extracted from sea water or brine and is chemically named ...

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Chromium

Symbol Cr Atomic Number 24 Atomic Mass 51.996 g mol-1 Discovered by Vaughlin in 1 ...

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Magnesium nitrate - Mg(NO3)2

What is Magnesium nitrate? Mg(NO3)2 is an inorganic nitrate salt of magnesium with a chemical name ...

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Citric Acid - C6H8O7

What is Citric Acid? Citric Acid is a weak acid with a chemical formula C6H8O7. It can occur in two ...

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Magnetic Properties of Solids

Every substance around us has some magnetic properties in it. Different types of materials show diff ...

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Claisen Condensation Mechanism

Claisen condensation mechanism begins with the removal of an alpha proton through the action of a st ...

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Malonic acid - C3H4O4

Malonic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with a chemical formula C3H4O4. Dicarboxylic acids are organic ...

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Classification of Drugs

Drugs, the word is not new to us. However, the word generally creates a frightful response amongst m ...

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Manganese - Mn

Manganese Symbol Mn Manganese Atomic Number 25 Manganese Atomic Mass 54.9380 g.mol-1 ...

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Classification and Nomenclature of Amines

Amines: Amines are one of the most important class of organic compounds which are derived by replaci ...

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Mannich Reaction Mechanism

Mannich reaction mechanism begins with the formation of an iminium ion from the reaction between for ...

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Classification of Colloids

What is Colloid? A colloid is primarily a heterogeneous mixture in which the minute particles of on ...

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Markovnikov's Rule

Markovnikov’s Rule, also known as Markownikoff’s rule, can be used to describe the outcome of so ...

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Classification of Elements in Modern Periodic Table

All existing matter in our surroundings are made up of basic units known as elements. Initially in 1 ...

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Mass

What is mass? In Physics, mass is a physical property of a body. It is usually a measure of a body ...

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Polymerization Reaction - Classification

The polymerization reaction in many chemical compounds may occur through a variety of reaction mecha ...

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Mass Spectrometry - Principle, Instrumentation, Working, Applications

Ever wondered how forensic scientists analyze the smallest of ounces of evidence they find in a crim ...

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Organic Compounds - Classification 0f Organic Compounds

 What are organic compounds? The compounds in solid, liquid or gaseous state which contain carbon ...

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Materials and their Classification Bases on Properties

What is a Material? Let us define a material, a material is a broad term for a chemical substance o ...

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Clemmensen Reduction

What is Clemmensen Reduction? The Clemmensen reduction is a reaction that is used to reduce aldehy ...

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Characteristics of Particles of Matter

A matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Pen, paper, clips, sand, air, ice, etc. are d ...

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Clothing Fabric

Clothes existed as long back as 100,000 years ago. Flax fibers were the first put to use as clothing ...

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Measurement of Enthalpy and Internal Energy Change

Generally, measurement of enthalpy and internal energy is done by an experimental technique known as ...

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Coal and its By - Products: Coke, Tar and Coal Gas

Coal is one of the most useful fossil fuels. It has many applications such as producing heat for hou ...

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Melting and Boiling Point

What is Boiling Point? The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapour pressur ...

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Cobalt

  Symbol Co Atomic Number 27 Atomic Mass 58.933 Discovered by Cobalt was ...

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Mendelevium

Symbol Md Atomic Number 101 Atomic Mass (258) g.mol -1 Discovered by G.T. Seaborg ...

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Colligative Properties

Colligative properties are properties of a solution that depends on the ratio of solute particles to ...

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Mercury - Hg

What is Mercury? Mercury is a chemical element and the only common metal which is liquid at ordinar ...

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Collision Theory

What is Collision Theory? The collision theory states that a chemical reaction can only occur betwe ...

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Band Theory of Metals

What is Band Theory of Metals? Metals conduct electricity with the help of valence electrons presen ...

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Colour of Transition Elements

Transition elements One of the remarkable properties of transition elements is their colour. It has ...

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Metallic Bonds

What is a Metallic Bond? ‘Metallic bond’ is a term used to describe the collective sharing of a ...

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Column Chromatography Principle

Column Chromatography Definition Column chromatography is a separation technique that is used to is ...

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Difference Between Metals and Nonmetals

Metals and Nonmetals are the elements present around us. So, it is important to know whether a parti ...

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Combustion Of Hydrocarbons: Alkanes

Combustion or burning is a high temperature exothermic reaction. It happens between a fuel and oxyge ...

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Methane - CH4

What is Methane? Methane is a simplest of the saturated hydrocarbons with a chemical formula CH4. I ...

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Common Ion Effect

The common ion effect is an effect that suppresses the ionization of an electrolyte when another ele ...

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Methods of Preparation of Alkenes in the Laboratory

Alkenes belong to the family of hydrocarbons. They contain a double bond between the carbon atoms. T ...

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Complexometric Titration

What is Complexometric Titration? Complexometric Titration or chelatometry is a type of volumetric ...

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Methyl acetate - C3H6O2

What is Methyl acetate? C3H6O2 is a carboxylate ester with a chemical name Methyl acetate. It is al ...

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Common Compounds Of Boron - Characteristics

Some of the other important compounds of boron are borax, orthoboric acid and boron hydrides. Borax ...

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Methylene blue - C16H18ClN3S

What is Methylene blue (C16H18ClN3S)? Methylene blue is an organic chloride salt with a formula C16 ...

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Concentration of Solution and Different Ways of Expressing It

Expressing Concentration of Solutions We always discuss a solution being diluted or concentrated; t ...

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Methyl Salicylate - C8H8O3

What is Methyl Salicylate? Methyl salicylate sometimes called as wintergreen oil which is a sweet s ...

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Condensation

What is Condensation? Condensation is the change of physical state of matter from gaseous phase int ...

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Micelle

What are Micelles? Micelles are formed by a cumulative formation of amphiphilic molecules in an aqu ...

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Conductometric Titration

What is Conductometric Titration? Conductometric titration is a laboratory method of quantitative a ...

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Mineral Resources

What are Mineral Resources? A mineral is a naturally occurring substance, representable by a chemic ...

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Conformation & Conformational Isomers

What is Conformation? In alkanes, the distribution of electrons in sigma molecular orbital is symm ...

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Mitsunobu Reaction

The Mitsunobu reaction was discovered by a professor in Japan, Oyo Mitsunobu (1934–2003). Mitsunob ...

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Conformation of Cyclohexane

A Conformation of cyclohexane can refer to many different 3-Dimensional shapes assumed by a cyclohex ...

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Modern Periodic Table and its Significance

History of the Periodic Table Earlier scientists assumed that the properties of elements are period ...

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Coordination Number

The Coordination number of an atom in a given molecule or a crystal refers to the total number of at ...

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Trends of Chemical Reactivity in Periodic Table

The systematic arrangement of elements in a periodic table discloses certain periodic trends in the ...

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Copolymer

What are Copolymers? A copolymer is a polymer that is made up of two or more monomer species. Many ...

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