Chemistry

Molality

Molality is also known as molal concentration. It is a measure of solute concentration in a solution. ...

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Copper (II) chloride - CuCl2

What is Copper (II) chloride? CuCl2 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Copper (II) chloride. ...

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Mole Concept

What is the Mole Concept? The mole concept is a convenient method of expressing the amount of a substance. ...

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Cu(OH)2 - Copper Hydroxide

What is Copper Hydroxide? Copper hydroxide is also called cupric hydroxide is a pale blue precipitate ...

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Molecular Structure

Objective The aim of this experiment is to make use of Cannon-Fenske Viscometer to identify the function ...

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Corrosion Inhibitor - Types, Uses

Corrosion Inhibitor is a chemical solvent which is applied in a given environment to reduce the rate ...

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Molybdenum

  Symbol Mo Atomic Number 42 Atomic Mass 137.327 Discovered by Molybdenum ...

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Chromic Oxide - Cr2O3

What is Chromic oxide? Cr2O3 is an inorganic compound with chemical name Chromic oxide. It is also called ...

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Monosaccharides (Glucose)

What are Monosaccharides? Monosaccharides are poly- hydroxy-aldehydes or -ketones, generally with an ...

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Critical Temperature

What is Critical Temperature? The critical temperature of a substance can be defined as the highest ...

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Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells

The ‘crystal lattice’ is the pattern formed by the points and used to represent the positions of ...

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How to Grow Crystals of Salt

The crystal making would be an exciting project for the children as they could keep a collection of them ...

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Name Reactions

What are Named Reactions? Name reaction is a chemical reaction which is named after the person who developed ...

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Curium

Symbol Cm Atomic Number 96 Atomic Mass (247) g.mol -1 Discovered by G.T. Seaborg in ...

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Natural Polymers

What are Natural Polymers? A polymer is basically synthesized by joining small molecules or substances ...

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Copper sulfate - CuSO4

Copper sulfate is a term that can refer to either of the following chemical compounds – cuprous sulfate ...

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Nature of C-X bond

Introduction Halogens are more electronegative than carbon. Thus halogen atoms have a greater tendency ...

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Cycloalkanes

Different organic molecules of organic compounds have different properties based upon their structure ...

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Nature and Characteristics of Matter

Nature of Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass is known as matter. Everything around us ...

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Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure

What is Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure? Dalton’s law of partial pressure was observed by John ...

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Neon

Symbol Ne Atomic Number 10 Atomic Mass 20.180 Discovered by Neon was discovered by ...

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Darmstadtium

Symbol Ds Atomic Number 110 Atomic Mass 261.9 g.mol -1  Discovered by Gesellschaft ...

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NERNST Equation

What is Nernst Equation? The Nernst equation provides a relation between the cell potential of an electrochemical ...

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Separation By Decantation and Loading

We all have seen our mothers separating stones and husk from rice and pulse grains in the kitchen. The ...

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Neutralization in Everyday Life

When acids and bases react, they result in the formation of salt and water as product and this reaction ...

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Decomposition

Introduction From the very moment, the human race clawed their way to the top of the food chain. Human ...

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Neutrons - The Neutral Sub-Atomic Particle

What are Neutrons? An atom is the smallest unit of matter. It is composed of sub-atomic particles, for ...

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Deforestation

Forests cover over 31% of the land area of our planet. They produce oxygen which is vital for living ...

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NH4OH - Ammonium Hydroxide

What is NH4OH (Ammonium Hydroxide)? NH4OH is the chemical formula of a solution of ammonia in water. ...

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Dehydration of Alcohols Mechanism

What is Dehydration of Alcohols Alcohol upon reaction with protic acids tends to lose a molecule of ...

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Nickel Sulfate - NiSO4

What is Nickel Sulfate? Nickel sulfate is an inorganic compound exists in different states depending ...

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Density of Unit Cell - Primitive unit cell

Definition of Unit Cell The smallest group of atoms which has the overall symmetry of a crystal, and ...

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Niobium

Symbol Nb Atomic Number 41 Atomic Mass 92.906 g.mol -1 Discovered by Charles Hatchett ...

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Freezing Point Depression

What is Freezing Point Depression? “Freezing point depression refers to the lowering of the freezing ...

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Nitride - N3−

What is Nitride? Nitride is a compound of nitrogen which never comes across a protic solution. The nitrogen ...

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History of the Development of Modern Periodic Table

We should get familiar with the word periodic table before we start up with the history of the modern ...

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Dialysis of lyophilic and lyophobic sol

In this article, we have discussed the procedure to perform an experiment to purify lyophilic and lyophobic ...

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Nitrogen

Symbol N Atomic Number 7 Atomic Mass 14.007 Discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772 Chemical ...

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Diazonium Salts and their Applications

The diazonium salts (di refers to ‘two’, azo is indicative of ‘nitrogen’ and ium implies that ...

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Nitrous Acid - HNO2

What is Nitrous Acid? Nitrous acid is unstable and weakly acidic compound. It exists in the solution ...

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Diazotization Reaction Mechanism

Diazotization reaction mechanism generally involves the usage of nitrous acid and another acid in the ...

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NMR Spectroscopy - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

What is NMR Spectroscopy? NMR Spectroscopy is abbreviated as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. ...

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Dichloromethane: The Uses and Effects on Environment

What is Dichloromethane? The high reactivity of halogens has made them one of the most useful elements ...

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Noble Gases - Trends in Physical and Chemical Properties

Group 18 elements of the modern periodic table Group 18 of the modern periodic table consists of noble ...

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Dielectric Properties of Solids

Dielectric materials are electrical insulators that can be polarized by the application of an electric ...

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Nomenclature of Organic Compounds having Functional Groups

What is an Organic Compound? An organic compound is a class of chemical compounds in which one or more ...

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Diethyl Ether - (C2H5)2O

What is Diethyl Ether? Ether is a common name for diethyl ether. Ether is a volatile, flammable, colorless ...

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Nomenclature of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Initially, there was no proper system for the naming of compounds. Mostly there were trivial names that ...

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Difference Between Addition and Condensation Polymerization

The process of joining small molecules to form a large molecule is known as polymerization. The building ...

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Nomenclature of Saturated Hydrocarbons

Nomenclature is a system of terms or rules that are used for forming these terms or names in a distinct ...

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Difference Between Aldehydes and Ketones

Ketones and aldehydes are organic compounds which contain a carbonyl group. These carbonic chemical compounds ...

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Non-metals

What is Non-Metal? Non-metals are the elements which form negative ions by accepting or gaining electrons. ...

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Difference Between Alkali and Base

Base There are multiple definitions of the base. A substance used to neutralize acid is called a ...

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Nuclear Energy

What is Nuclear Energy? Nuclear Energy is the energy in the core of an atom. Where an atom is a tiny ...

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Difference Between Alloy and Composite

Both alloys and composites are a mixture of elements. The main difference between alloy and composite ...

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Difference Between an Atom and a Molecule

What is an Atom? An atom can be defined as the smallest constituent particle of an element which showcases ...

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Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are long-chain polymeric molecules. The monomer or the repeating unit is known as the nucleotides ...

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Difference Between Atomic Mass and Atomic Weight

Atomic mass and atomic weight do not mean the same but still some people use the terms interchangeably. Atomic ...

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Nucleophilic Addition Reaction

What is a Nucleophilic Addition Reaction? A nucleophilic addition reaction is a chemical addition reaction ...

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Difference Between Cell and Battery

Batteries and cells are an important invention that have made a lot of our everyday tasks and life much ...

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Nylon - Structure, Properties, Uses

What is Nylon? Nylon is the most useful synthetic material with applications varying from daily life ...

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Difference Between CNG and LPG

CNG vs LPG CNG which stands for compressed natural gas is mainly composed of Methane, while LPG which ...

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Nylon Riots: Revolution in Textile Industries

Have you ever wondered how the production of material by simple rearrangement of molecules can change ...

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Difference Between Crystalline and Amorphous

There are three states of matter namely solids, liquids and gases. Solids have two states namely amorphous ...

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Extraction of Aluminium

A soft, silvery-white, corrosion resistant metal. It is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust ...

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Difference Between Effusion and Diffusion

Effusion and diffusion are two commonly used terms in chemistry and these two terms are nothing but two ...

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Electrophile and Nucleophile

Electrophile and nucleophile are the chemical species that donate or accept electrons to form a new chemical ...

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Octet Rule

What is the Octet Rule? The octet rule dictates that atoms are most stable when their valence shells ...

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Difference Between Elements and Atoms

When you are studying chemistry, terms like elements and atoms are the most commonly used terminologies ...

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Difference Between Endpoint and Equivalence Point

Titration is used in analytical chemistry to determine acid, bases, reductants, oxidants and other species. ...

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Orbital Overlap Concept

The atoms combine by colliding with each other. But what does this mean on atomic level. This situation ...

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Difference Between Ester and Ether

Ester and Ether are functional classes that are used to classify organic chemical compounds. Esters are ...

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Ores and Minerals

What are Ores and Minerals? Most metals are too reactive to exist on their own in the ground. Instead, ...

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Differences Between Evaporation and Boiling

Evaporation is the process where liquid gets converted into vapour, a simple example to understand Evaporation ...

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Organic Solvents

What are Organic Solvents? Organic solvents are used by everyone in most of the daily activities starting ...

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Difference Between Evaporation and Distillation

The main difference between evaporation and distillation is that evaporation is a process that involves ...

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Organometallic Chemistry

What is Organometallic Chemistry? Organometallic Chemistry involves the study of chemical compounds ...

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Difference Between Fat and Cholesterol

Fat: There exists a class of biomolecules called lipids. Fats belong to this class. They are insoluble ...

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Osmium (Os)

Symbol Os Atomic Number 76 Atomic Mass 190.2 g.mol -1 Discovered by Smithson Tennant ...

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Difference Between Fluid and Liquid

Due to the common usage of the term fluid in many instances it often often creates an impression that ...

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Difference Between Gas and Liquid

Matter exists in four forms viz Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Liquid molecules have a definite volume ...

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Oxidation and Reduction Reaction

What is Reduction? In Chemistry, it is referred to as the loss of oxygen when it is with respect to ...

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Difference Between Hard Water and Soft Water

Water is a universal solvent. It is a chemical substance which is transparent, colorless, odorless and ...

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Oxidation State of Group 15 Elements

Group 15 elements consist of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth. As we move down the ...

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Difference Between Ideal Gas and Real Gas

The three states of matter that are recognised by their characteristics are solids, liquids and gases. ...

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Oxidation State of Group 16 Elements: The Chalcogens

The group 16 elements, also known as the chalcogens have 6 valence electrons, and hence they can achieve ...

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Difference Between Ionic, Covalent and Metallic bonds

Chemistry is a subject to explore the chemical structure, properties, bonds of substance etc. There are ...

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Oxides of Nitrogen

Nitrogen reacts with oxygen to form a number of nitrogen oxides. It exhibits different oxidation states ...

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Difference Between Mass and Matter

Mass and matter are two terms that we often hear about both in chemistry and physics classes. Besides, ...

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Oximes

What are Oximes? Oximes are the chemical compounds that belong to the class of imines, having the general ...

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Difference Between Mixture and Solution

In chemistry, student tend to mix up or be confused about concepts like mixture and solution. These are ...

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Oxoacids of Phosphorus

Oxoacids Of Phosphorus Oxoacids are basically acids that contain the element oxygen. As such, Phosphorus ...

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Difference Between Nitrite and Nitrate

Nitrite and Nitrate Nitrite and Nitrate are used interchangeably because of their similar pronunciation ...

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Difference Between Orbit and Orbitals

An orbit is the fixed path along which electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom. Thus all atoms ...

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Oxygen Cycle

We all know how important oxygen is for our sustenance, it is present in the air we breathe and the water ...

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Difference Between Oxidation and Reduction

The chemical reactions which often work together are oxidation and reduction. During this reaction there ...

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Ozone Layer

What is the Ozone Layer? Almost always the ozone has only been correlated with the hole in the ozone ...

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Difference Between Chemical and Physical Properties

Most of the substances that we see around have certain characteristics and properties by which they can ...

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Difference Between Primary Cell and Secondary Cell

Battery or cells are referred to as the parallel combination of electrochemical cells. The major difference ...

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Difference Between Rust and Corrosion

Rusting and corrosion are two chemical processes, which result in disintegration of materials especially ...

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