Long before the numbers were invented, the counting was done using some kind of physical objects such as sticks or pebbles. Post that, lines and marks on rocks and potteries also continued for a long time for counting various things.
Eventually, the numbers came into existence. And then there was a need to adopt a standard system for counting, that is, a mathematical notation for expressing numbers using digits or symbols. This is known as the numeral system or the system of numeration. But across different countries and periods, the numbers developed also differed. This is one reason we have a large number of numeral systems, e.g., Roman, Greek, Arabic, binary, decimal, etc.
Let us consider a number, say 225. Notice that the digit 2 is used twice in this number. Both of them have a different value. We differentiate them by stating their place value, which is defined as the numerical value of a digit on the basis of its position in a number. So the place value of the leftmost 2 is Hundreds while the one in the center is Tens.
Coming back to the Indian numeral system, the place values of digits go in the sequence of Ones, Tens, Hundreds, Thousands, Ten Thousands, Lakhs, Ten Lakhs, Crores and so on.
In the number 10,23,45,678 the place values of each digit are:
The relationship between them is:
The place values of digits go in the sequence of Ones, Tens, Hundreds, Thousands, Ten Thousands, Hundred Thousands, Millions, Ten Millions and so on, in the international numeral system. In the number 12,345,678 the place values of each digit are:
The relations between them are:
International Numeral System
Comparison between Indian and International Numeral System
Comparing the two numeral systems we observe that:
Commas are placed in the large numbers to help us read and write them easily. In Indian and international systems, the commas are placed at different positions.
As per Indian numeral system, the first comma is placed after the hundreds place post which they are placed after every two digits. E.g., 1,23,45,67,890
As per international numeral system, the first comma is placed after the hundreds place, post which they are placed after every three digits. E.g., 1,234,567,890