Most Easy and Scoring Chapters for NEET 2024 Exam

The National Testing Agency (NTA) conducts the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test, NEET every year. While preparing for India's single largest medical entrance examination, candidates seek out easy and scoring chapters in NEET 2025 to ensure a strong performance. It will help aspirants to focus on scoring chapters of NEET 2025 and avoid unnecessary ones.

NEET is a highly competitive medical entrance test. While it's crucial not to neglect any topic in the NEET syllabus, having insight into the chapters that offer relatively easier concepts can boost the preparation. In this article, Careers360 has curated a comprehensive list of these chapters for Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Read the full article to gain a strategic advantage in NEET preparation, ensuring a well-rounded and effective approach to tackle the exam.

NEET 2025- Easy and scoring chapters

As per the latest NEET 2025 syllabus released by the National Medical Commission, the authority has deleted many topics from the subjects. Candidates can consult the following tables to identify the chapters that are both easy to understand and promising in terms of scoring well in the NEET 2025 exam.

Easy and scoring chapters in Physics for NEET 2025

In the pursuit of acing the NEET 2025 exam, identifying the easy physics chapters for NEET can significantly boost a candidate’s preparation. While every topic is essential, focusing on certain chapters can provide an edge. In the table below, listed are the easy and scoring chapters in physics for NEET for candidate’s reference.

Easy and important chapters for NEET 2025 Physics

Unit name

Topics

Sub-topics

Physics and Measurement

Physical quantities and units

Practical units

System of unit

Physical quantity

Errors and Significant figures

Significant figures

Errors of measurements

Error in quantity raised to some power

Dimension analysis and its application

Application of Dimensional analysis (II)- To convert a physical quantity from one system to other

Momentum, Impulse , Angular momentum, Angular impulse

Application of Dimensional analysis (V)- As a research tool to derive new relations

Dimension

Dimensionless Quantities

Frequency, angular frequency, angular velocity, velocity gradient

Heat, Latent heat , Specific heat capacity and Temperature

Work, Potential Energy, Kinetic Energy, Torque

Kinematics

2D motion

Uniform circular motion

Relative Velocity

Physical quantities in kinematics

Speed and velocity

Kinematics graphs

Laws of motion

Applications of Newton's 2nd and 3rd Laws of motion

Spring Force

Rocket Propulsion

Motion of blocks when connected with string

Friction

Acceleration of block against friction

Kinetic Friction

Static Friction

Newton's First Law

Newton’s First law of motion

Common forces in mechanics

Equilibrium of concurrent forces

Dynamics of uniform circular motion

Skidding of Vehicle on a Level Road

Work, energy and power

Collision

Head on inelastic collision

Perfectly inelastic collision

Types of collision

Perfectly Elastic Head on Collision

Energy and Power

Power

Potential energy curve

Work

Nature of Work Done

Motion of System Of Particles and Rigid Body

Rigid body and its centre of Mass

Position of centre of mass for solid cone

Moment of Inertia

Moment of inertia of a RING

Moment of inertia of a DISC

Moment of inertia of a Rod

Basic concepts of rotational motion

Equations of Linear Motion and Rotational Motion

Torque

Conservation of angular momentum and its applications

Angular Momentum

Work, Energy and Power for Rotating Body

Gravitation

Planets and satellites

Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion

Universal law of gravitation

Newton's law of Gravitation

Acceleration due to gravity and it's variation

Acceleration due to gravity (g)

Gravitational field Intensity

Gravitational field due to Point mass

Properties of bulk matter

Fluid dynamics

Viscosity

Flow of Fluids

Equation of Continuity

Applications of Bernoulli's Theorem

Heat transfer

Basics of conduction

Law of Thermal Conductivity

Stefan Boltzmann law

Properties of Solids

Stress and its types

Hooke’s law

Fluid statics

Variation of pressure

Thermodynamics

Second law of Thermodynamics

Carnot Engine

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Entropy

Thermodynamics Processes

Cyclic and Non cyclic process

Introduction to Thermodynamics

Introduction to Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic variables and equation of state

First law of thermodynamics

First law of Thermodynamics

Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic theory

Law of equipartition of energy

Kinetic energy of ideal gas

States of matter

States of matter

Ideal gas, its equation and laws of ideal gas

Gas laws

Gas Law

Ideal Gas Equation

Oscillations and Waves

Waves on a string

Standing waves

General equation of travelling

Speed of transverse wave on a string

Sound Wave

Beats

Propagation of sound wave

Standing longitudinal wave

End correction

Oscillation in a spring

Spring System

Simple harmonic motion (SHM)

Simple harmonic motion

Terms associated with SHM

Simple harmonic as projection of circular motion

Electrostatics

Electric potential

Relation between electric field and potential

Equipotential surface

Capacitors

Combination of capacitors

Electric field

Electric field

Electric field lines

Electrostatic Potential energy

Electrostatic Potential energy

Capacitors

Capacitor

Current Electricity

Ohm's Law

Ohm's Law

Wheatstone's Bridge and Meter Bridge

Meter Bridge

Cell and Combination of Cell

Series and Parallel Grouping of cell


Emf of a cell when the cell is charging and discharging and Open circuit and Short circuit

Kirchhoff Law

KCL, KVL, Conservation of charge and Energy and introduction to Galvanometer

Voltmeter

Resistance and Resistivity

Colour coding of Resistance

Potentiometer

Potentiometer

Electric Current

Current Density

Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Motion of a charged particle in uniform magnetic and electric fields

Lorentz force

Force on a moving charge in magnetic field

Moving coil galvanometer

Moving coil galvanometer

Biot-Savart Law and its applications

Magnetic field on the axis of circular current loop

Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor

Magnetic force on a current carrying conductor

Magnetism and matter

Magnetisation and magnetic intensity

Ampere's law and its applications

Solenoid

Torque on a current loop, Magnetic Dipole

Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field

Circular current loop as magnetic dipole

Biot-Savart Law and its applications

Magnetic Field due to current in straight wire

Electromagnetic Induction and alternating Currents

AC circuits

AC voltage applied to a resistor

Power in an AC circuit

AC voltage applied to a capacitor

Motional Electromotive force

Motional Electromotive force(I)

Motional Electromotive force(II)

Motional Electromotive force(III)

Energy consideration in Motional Emf

Inductance

Mutual Inductance

Mutual Inductance for two coaxial long solenoids

Mutual Inductance for a pair of concentric coils

Introduction to electromagnetic induction

Magnetic flux

Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwell's Displacement Current

Displacement current

Optics

Interference and Diffraction of light wave

YDSE with thin slab

Lenses

Power of lens and mirror

Magnification in Lenses

Combination of thin lens in contact

Lenses at a distance

Reflection of light

Spherical mirrors

Mirror formula

Refraction

Refraction

Total Internal Reflection

Optical Instruments

Compound Microscope

Refraction through a Prism

Refraction Through A Prism 1

Refraction Through A Prism 2

Dispersion Of Light 1

Polarization of light

Polarization of light

Malus's Law

Interference and Diffraction of light wave

Interference of light waves- 1

Interference of light waves- 2

Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Photoelectric Effect

Einstein's Photoelectric equation

Graphs in Photoelectric effect

Photon counts,Flux and Intensity of radiation

Force exerted on a surface due to radiation

Wave nature of matter

Davisson-Germer Experiment

Atoms And Nuclei

X-rays

Characteristic X-Rays

Continuous X-ray

Bohr's model

Bohr's Model of hydrogen atom

Energy of electron in nth orbit

Nuclei

Binding Energy Per Nucleon

Nuclear Force and Stability

Atomic Collision

Electronic devices

Semiconductors and its types

Zener diode

Band Theory of solids

Optoelectronic junction devices

Classification of solids on the basis of Band theory

Semiconductor Diode(I)

Extrinsic Semiconductor

Semiconductor Diode(II)

Transistor and its applications

Transistor as a device

Easy and important chapters for NEET 2025 Chemistry

While preparing for NEET 2025 chemistry, focusing on easy yet vital chapters can be a game-changer. Understanding these fundamental chapters thoroughly can lay a robust foundation, enabling students to tackle more complex topics with confidence. Below mentioned is the list of NEET chemistry easy chapters for candidate’s reference.

Easy and scoring chapters in Chemistry for NEET 2025

Unit name

Topics

Sub-topics

Basic concepts of Chemistry

Stoichiometry, Stoichiometric Calculations

Reactions in Solutions

Stoichiometry, Stoichiometric Calculations And Limiting Reagent

Percentage Composition

Empirical Formula And Molecular Formula

Structure of Atom

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

Quantum mechanical model of atom

Quantum Numbers

Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity

Classification of elements and periodicity in properties

Modern periodic law and the present form of the periodic table

Long form of Modern periodic table

Electronic configurations and types of elements:s-, p-, d-, f-, blocks

Classification of Elements : s-block

Periodic trends in properties of elements

Physical Properties of Elements

Chemical Properties of Elements

Chemical Bonding and molecular structure

Hydrogen Bonding

Hydrogen Bonding

Bond Parameter

Bond Parameters: Order, Resonance, Resonance Hybrid

Bond Parameters: length, angle, energy, strength

Hybridisation

Hybridisation

Electronic Theory of Chemical Bonding

Lewis Representation of Simple Molecules (Lewis Structure)

Limitations of The Octet Rule

Valence Bond Theory

Fazan’s Rule and Covalent Character in Ionic Bond

p pi-p pi and p pi -d pi bonding

The Valence Shell electron Pair Repulsion Theory

VSPER (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory

Bonding in Coordination Compounds

Valence Bond Theory

Polarity of Bonds

Dipole Moment

States of Matter : Gases and liquids

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces


Gas Law

The Gas Laws- Boyle’s Law (Pressure - Volume Relationship)


Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation from Ideal Gas Behaviour

Behaviour of Real Gases: Deviation from Ideal Gas Behaviour


Terms used for Heat of reaction

Enthalpy Of Dissociation, Atomisation And Phase Change


Laws of Thermodynamics

Adiabatic Reversible And Irreversible Expansion

Thermodynamics

Terms used for Heat of Reaction

Lattice Enthalpy, Hydration Enthalpy And Enthalpy Of Solution

Thermochemistry And Enthalpy For Chemical Reaction

Hess’s Law

Enthalpy Of Combustion

Spontaneity

Gibbs Energy And Change In Gibbs Energy

Thermodynamic Process

Reversible, Irreversible, Polytropic Process

Equilibrium

Ionization of Acids and Bases

pH of Solutions: Strong Bases

Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant

Types of Equilibrium Constant

Buffer Solutions

Calculating pH of a Buffer Solution (acidic)

Working of Acidic Buffer

Basic Buffers

Factors affecting Equilibria

Le Chatelier’s principle(P, C)

Le Chatelier’s principle(T, Innert Gas)

Redox Reactions

Oxidation Number and Oxidation State

Oxidation Number and Oxidation State

Types of Redox Reactions

Types of Redox Reactions

Balancing of Redox Reaction

Balancing of Redox Reaction: Oxidation Number Method

Hydrogen

Water

Hard and Soft Water

Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table

Occurrence of Hydrogen - Isotopes of Hydrogen

Properties of Dihydrogen

Uses of Hydrogen

s- Block Elements ( Alkali and Alkaline earth metals )

General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals

Halides of Alkali Metals

Some Important Compounds of Sodium

Sodium Chloride and Sodium Hydroxide

Properties of Alkali Metals

Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals - 1

Chemical Properties of Alkali Metals - 2

Group 2 Elements: Alkaline EarthMetals

Alkaline Earth Metals(Physical Properties)

Some Important Compounds of Calcium

Calcium Carbonate - CaCO3 and Calcium Sulphate(Plaster of Paris) - CaSO4·1⁄2H2O

Some p-Block elements

Group-18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

Physical Properties

Some Important Compounds of Halogens

Interhalogen Compounds

Hydrides

Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon

Silicones

SiO2

Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family

Physical Properties of Group 13

Physical Properties of Group 13 - 2

Group 16 Elements

Chemical Properties - 1

Group 16: Oxygen Family - Physical Properties

Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family

Allotropic Form of Carbon(Diamond)

Allotropic Form of Carbon(Graphite)

Group 15 Elements

Group 15 - Physical and Chemical Properties

Chemical Properties - 2

Important Compounds of Phosphorus

Phosphine and Phosphorus Chloride

Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron

Chemical Properties of Group 13

Important Compounds of Oxygen

Oxides

Organic Chemistry - some Basic principles and techniques

Classification of Organic Compounds

Functional Group

Methods of Purification of Compounds

Chromatography

Sublimation and Crystallisation

Distillation under reduced pressure and Steam distillation

Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism

Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

Test for Halogens

Applications

Applications of Hyerconjugation

Quantitative Analysis

Carius Method (Halogen and Sulphur)

Hydrocarbons

Alkenes

Reduction of Alkynes to Alkenes

Dehalogenation of Vicinal Halides

Alkanes

Preparation of Alkanes(Corey House Reaction, Reduction of Alkyl Halides by LiAlH4, Wurtz Reaction)

Chemical Properties(Free Radical Reaction, Chlorination, Nitration and sulphonation)

Chemical Properties (Combustion, Catalytic Oxidation, Isomerisation, Aromatisation and Pyrolysis)

Preparation of Alkanes(Reduction of Alkenes/Alkynes)

Alkynes

Hydrohalogenation and Halogenation of Alkynes

Environmental Chemistry

Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs , major atmospheric pollutants

Global Warming and Acid Rain

Smog

Atmospheric Pollution

Water Pollution

Dissolved Oxygen and BOD

Solid state

Classification of Crystalline Solids

Classification of Crystalline Solids

Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell

Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell

Close Packed Structures

Interstitial Voids

Solutions

Colligative Properties

Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic Solution

Depression in Freezing Point

Ideal and non ideal solutions

Ideal Solution

Van't Hoff Factor

Calculation of Extent of Dissociation in an Electrolytic Solution

Electrochemistry

Electrochemical Cell

Electrochemical Series

Faraday's Second Law

Kohlrausch's Law

Kohlrausch's Law

Galvanic Cells

Galvanic Cells

Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions

Molar Conductance at Infinite Dilution

Chemical kinetics

Temperature dependence of the rate of reaction

Exception(Arrhenius Theory)

Effective Activation Energy

Factors influencing rate of reaction

Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction(2)

Rate Law

Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction

Integrated rate equations

Half Life and Life Time of Reaction

Graphs for Zero-Order Reaction

Zero Order Kinetics - Zero Order Reaction

nth Order Kinetics

Integrated Rate Law - Zero Order Reaction

Surface Chemistry

Colloids

Coagulation/Floculation

Charge on Colloids

Colloids

Adsorption and Absorption

Physical Adsorption

General Principles and processes of Isolation Elements

Concentration

Leaching: Chemical Method

Froth Floatation Process

Refining

Vapour Phase Refining

d and f Block Elements

General Properties of Transition Elements

Formation of Coloured Ions

Ionisation Energy

Oxidation State

The Inner Transition Elements

Properties of Actinoids

Coordination compounds

Definitions of some important terms pertaining to coordination compounds

Oxidation Number

Coordination Number

Addition Compounds or Molecular Compounds

Isomerism in Coordination Compounds

Stereoisomerism

Structural Isomerism - 1

Structural Isomerism - 2

Bonding in Coordination Compounds

Bonding in Coordination Compounds(Werner's Theory)

Crystal Field Splitting in Octahedral Field

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Nature of C-X bond and Physical Properties

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Properties of Phenols

Properties of Phenols

Reaction of Phenols with dil. HNO3

Preparation of Phenol

Properties of Alcohols

Reduction by LiAlH4 and NaBH4

Acylation and Oxidation of Alcohols

Grignard Reagent

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Chemical reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

Intermolecular Cannizaro Reaction

Nucelophilic Addition Reaction

Intramolecular Aldol Condensation

Chemical properties of Carboxylic Acids

Acidity in Carboxylic Acids

Benzoin Condensation, Benzil-Benzilic Acid Rearrangement

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

Preparation of Amines

Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis

Properties of Amines

Azo-Coupling Reaction

Test for Amines

Carbylamine Test

Reaction with NaNO2 + HCl

Biomolecules

Proteins

Enzymes

Amino Acids

Carbohydrates

Chemical Properties of Glucose

Polymers

Polymers

Synthetic Rubbers

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Drugs

Antibiotics

Chemicals in Food

Preservatives

Biology easy chapters for NEET

In the vast domain of biology, several chapters are comparatively easier to understand, making them essential for NEET preparation. Mastering easy chapters in biology for NEET not only boosts confidence but also contributes significantly to scoring well in the biology section in the examination. In the table below, given is the list of NEET biology easy chapters for candidate’s reference.

Easy and scoring chapters in Biology for NEET

Unit name

Topics

Sub-topics

Diversity in Living World

Animal Kingdom

Physiology of Porifera

Class Chondrichthyes - Characteristics Features

Phylum Aschelminthes and Body Plan of Aschelminthes

Phylum Mollusca and Body Plan of Mollusca

Reproduction and Development in Porifera

Class Osteichthyes - Characteristics Features

Reproduction and Development in Aschelminthes

Phylum Porifera and Morphological Features of Porifera

Subphylum Cephalochordata - Characteristics Features

Reproduction, Development and Metagenesis in Cnidaria

Class Reptilia - Characteristics Features

Physiology and Reproduction in Annelids

Body Wall of Porifera

Class Cyclostomata - Characteristics Features

Class Mammalia - Characteristics Features

Phylum Arthropoda and Body Plan of Arthropoda

Plant Kingdom

Classification of Pteridophytes

Characteristics of Angiosperms

Rhodophyceae

Gymnosperms

Types of Life Cycles

Bryophyta

Reproduction in gymnosperms

Classification of Bryophytes

Chlorophyceae/ Green Algae

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Classification of Gymnosperms

Phaeophyceae

Biological Classification

Viruses, Viroids and Prions

Phycomycetes (Algal fungi)

Basidiomycetes (Club fungi)

Eubacteria

Lichen and Mycorrhiza

Protozoa

The Living World

Taxon and Taxonomic Hierarchy (Taxonomic categories)

Taxonomical Aids

What is Living

Steps of Taxonomy

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Secondary Growth

Ground Tissue System

Secondary Growth in Intrastelar Region of Dicot Stem

SUMMARY - Internal Structure of Dicot Stem Showing Primary Growth

Secondary Growth in Intrastelar Region of Dicot Stem - Heartwood and Sapwood

Elements of Xylem - Tracheids and Vessels

SUMMARY - Internal Structure of Monocot Root Showing Primary Growth

Components of Phloem - Sieve tubes and Companion Cells

Morphology of Flowering Plants

The Fruit

Modification of the Underground Stem

Description of Some Important Families: Solanaceae

Cymose Inflorescence and Its Types

Placentation

Animal Tissues

Glandular Epithelium

Unstriped or Non-striated or Visceral or Smooth or Involuntary Muscle

Specialised Junctions between Epithelial Cells

Morphology, Anatomy and Functions of Different Systems of Cockroach

Respiratory System and Excretory System of Cockroach

Cell Structure and Function

Cell: The Unit of Life

Semi-autonomous Organelles: Mitochondria (Sing. Mitochondrion)

Flagella and Cilia

Semi-autonomous Organelles: Chloroplast

Components of the Endomembrane System: Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Centrosome and Centrioles

The Cytoskeleton

Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell Cycle: Interphase

Introduction to Meiosis

Stages of Meiosis â…  - Prophase I

Stages of Meiosis â…  - Metaphase I and Anaphase I

Biomolecules

Enzymes and Their Classification

Enzyme Inhibition

Lipids and Fatty Acids

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA

Plant Physiology

Respiration in Plants

Introduction to Cellular Respiration

Steps of Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle

Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic Pigments: Carotenoids and Phycobilins

The C4 Pathway

Red Drop Phenomenon and Emerson Enhancement Effect

Introduction to Photorespiration

Chemiosmotic Hypothesis: Proton Gradient

Process of Photorespiration

Dark Reaction of Photosynthesis and RuBP

Mineral Nutrition

Role of Micronutrients

Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements

Nitrogen Fixation - Natural or Atmospheric

Plant Growth and Development

Photoperiodism

Functions of Auxins

Functions of Ethylene

Abscisic Acid and Its Discovery

Transport in Plants

Water Potential and Its Components

Root Pressure Theories

Human Physiology

Chemical Control & Integration

Kidneys

The Hypothalamus

Gonads: Testes

The Pituitary Gland and Its Anterior Lobe

Disorders of Pancreas

Neural Control & Coordination

Structure of Human Eye: Coats of Eyeball

Forebrain: Olfactory Lobes & Diencephalon

Structure of Retina

Forebrain: Cerebrum

Structure of Human Ear: Vestibular Apparatus

Hindbrain or Rhombencephalon

Structure of Human Ear: External Ear

Body Fluids & Circulation

Abnormal conditions related to circulatory system

Conducting System of Heart

ECG

Blood

Digestion & Absorption

Disorder of the Digestive System

Teeth and Their Types

Physiology of Stomach

Large Intestine and Its Parts

Excretory Products & Their Elimination

Types of Animals Based on Excretory Wastes

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct

Breathing & Exchange of Gases

Exchange of Gases

Disorders of the Respiratory System

Locomotion & Movement

Sarcomere

Reproduction

Human Reproduction

Events of Fertilization

Accessory Sex Glands of Males

Embryonic Development: Cleavage & Formation of Blastocyst

Structure of Sperm

Implantation

Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive System

The Male Reproductive System: Scrotum & Testes

Male Sex Accessory Ducts

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Embryogeny and Structure of Embryo in Monocots

Development of Male Gametophyte

Fertilization & Mode of Entry of Pollen Tube in Ovule

Apomixis & Polyembryony

Pollination and Its Types

Double Fertilization

Agents of Pollination: Abiotic Agents

Endosperm Development

Structure of Pollen Grain

Ornithophily & Chiropterophily

Reproduction in Organisms

Binary Fission & Its Types

Genetics and Evolution

Principles of Inheritance & Variation

Sex Determination: XX Female & XO Male Type

Law of Independent Assortment

Types of Mutations

Linkage: Discovery & Meaning

Interpretation of Monohybrid Cross: Law of Dominance

Phenylketonuria

Sex Determination: ZW Female & ZZ Males Type

Codominance

Chromosomal Mutations: Structural

Sex Determination

Sex Determination in Drosophila

Test Cross

Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance & T.H. Morgan

Chromosomal Number Mutations

Sex Determination: XX Female & XY Male Type

Dihybrid Cross

Mutations & Their Features

Experiments of T.H Morgan

Monohybrid Cross of Mendel

Pedigree Analysis

Evolution

Mechanism of Evolution: Natural Selection & Its Types

Evidence of Organic Evolution: Homologous Organs & Analogous Organs

Origin & Evolution of Man

Chemical Evolution & Miller Experiment

Adaptive Radiation

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium

Theories of Evolution: Lamarckism

Mechanism of Evolution: Genetic Drift, Founder Effect & Bottleneck Effect

Salient Features of Darwin Theory of Natural Selection

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Salient Features of Human Genome

Process of Transcription in Prokaryotes

The Search For Genetic Material: Transforming Principle

Process of Translation

Introduction to Replication of DNA

RNA Polymerase in Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes

Hershey & Chase Experiment

Lac Operon

DNA Replication in Prokaryotes

Salient Features of Double-Helix Structure of DNA

Salient Features of Genetic Code

Properties of Genetic Material

Human Genome Project & Its Goals

Introduction to Transcription & Transcription Unit

Packaging of DNA Helix in Eukaryotes

Introduction to Translation

Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Biology and Human Welfare

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Plant Breeding

Single Cell Protein

Animal Breeding - Inbreeding

Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance: Mutation Breeding

Tissue Culture & Somatic Hybridization

Out-breeding: Out-crossing, Cross-breeding & Interspecific hybridisation

Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests

High Yielding Varieties (HYVs)

Controlled Breeding Experiments: Artificial Insemination & MOET

Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality: Biofortification

Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance: Conventional Breeding

Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes as Biocontrol Agents

Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules

Microbes as Biofertilizers

Microbes in Sewage Treatment

Microbes in Household Products

Microbes in Production of Biogas

Microbes in Industrial Products: Antibiotics

Human Health and Disease

Disorders of the Immune System

Innate Immunity

Immune System in Humans

Viral Diseases

AIDS

Humoral Immunity or Antibody Mediated Immune System (AMIS)

Antibodies

Bacterial Diseases

Cancer-I

Cell-Mediated Immune System

Vaccination & Immunisation

Life Cycle of Plasmodium

Commonly Abused Drugs

Immune Response & Lines of Defence

Biotechnology and Its Applications

Biotechnology & Its Applications

DNA Fingerprinting

Pest Resistant Transgenic Plant Using RNAi

Golden Rice

Biotechnological Application in Medicines - Genetically Engineered Insulin

Insect Resistant Transgenic Plant - Bt Cotton

Biotechnology: Principles & Processes

Direct or Vectorless Methods of Gene Transfer

Biotechnology & Its Principles

Features required to facilitate cloning into a vector

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Tools of Biotechnology: Restriction Endonucleases

Vectors for cloning genes in plants and animals

Downstream Processing

Functioning of Restriction Endonucleases

Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)

Gel Electrophoresis

Ecology and environment

Biodiversity & Conservation

In-situ Conservation of Biodiversity - Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves

Species Diversity - India & World

Need to Conserve Biodiversity

The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem

Patterns of Biodiversity - Species-Area relationships

In-situ Conservation of Biodiversity - Hotspots, National Parks and Sacred groves

Cause of biodiversity losses

Ecosystem

Functions of Ecosystem: Productivity

Pyramid of Numbers

Functions of Ecosystem: Decomposition

Pyramid of Biomass & Pyramid of Energy

Trophic Levels, Food Chain & Food Web

Ecological Succession

Components of Ecosystem: Biotic

10 Percent Law of Energy Flow

Organisms & Populations

Predation

Responses to Abiotic Factors: Regulate & Conform

Types of Parasites

Population & Its Attributes: Population Size or Density

Competition

Responses to Abiotic Factors: Migrate & Suspend

Population Attributes - Age Pyramid

Mutualism

Gause competitive exclusion principle & Resource Partitioning

Adaptations - I

Population Attributes - Population Growth

Ecology, Organism & Its Environment

Parasitism

Adaptations - II

Predation

Environmental Issues

Greenhouse Effects

Air Pollution

Deforestation

Global warming

Control of Air Pollution - Catalytic Converters, Electrostatic Precipitators & Scrubbers

Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere

Water Pollution & Its Causes : Domestic Sewage & Algal Bloom