# NCERT Solutions for Exercise 4.4 Class 12 Maths Chapter 4 - Determinants

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4 consists of questions related to finding minors and cofactors of determinants. The minor of an element of the determinant is obtained by deleting the row and the column in which the element lies. Minors and cofactors are useful to find the adjoint and inverse of the matrix that you will learn in the next exercise of the Class 12 Maths NCERT book.

There are some examples given before Class 12 Maths ch 4 ex 4.4 that you can solve for better understanding. Exercise 4.4 Class 12 Maths is a very small exercise but useful for all the upcoming exercises. Class 12th Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4 questions are very similar to the solved examples given before the NCERT exercise. First, try to solve these exercise questions by yourself. If you are finding difficulties while solving Class 12th Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4, you can go through NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4. Also, you can check for NCERT Solutions here.

Also, see

• Determinants Exercise 4.1
• Determinants Exercise 4.2
• Determinants Exercise 4.3
• Determinants Exercise 4.5
• Determinants Exercise 4.6
• Determinants Miscellaneous Exercise

## Determinants Exercise:4.4

Question:1(i) Write Minors and Cofactors of the elements of following determinants:

$\small \begin{vmatrix}2 &-4 \\0 &3 \end{vmatrix}$

GIven determinant: $\begin{vmatrix}2 &-4 \\0 &3 \end{vmatrix}$

Minor of element $a_{ij}$ is $M_{ij}$.

Therefore we have

$M_{11}$ = minor of element $a_{11}$ = 3

$M_{12}$ = minor of element $a_{12}$ = 0

$M_{21}$ = minor of element $a_{21}$ = -4

$M_{22}$ = minor of element $a_{22}$ = 2

and finding cofactors of $a_{ij}$ is $A_{ij}$ = $(-1)^{i+j}M_{ij}$.

Therefore we have:

$A_{11} = (-1)^{1+1}M_{11} = (-1)^2(3) = 3$

$A_{12} = (-1)^{1+2}M_{12} = (-1)^3(0) = 0$

$A_{21} = (-1)^{2+1}M_{21} = (-1)^3(-4) = 4$

$A_{22} = (-1)^{2+2}M_{22} = (-1)^4(2) = 2$

Question:1(ii) Write Minors and Cofactors of the elements of following determinants:

$\small \begin{vmatrix} a &c \\ b &d \end{vmatrix}$

GIven determinant: $\begin{vmatrix} a &c \\ b &d \end{vmatrix}$

Minor of element $a_{ij}$ is $M_{ij}$.

Therefore we have

$M_{11}$ = minor of element $a_{11}$ = d

$M_{12}$ = minor of element $a_{12}$ = b

$M_{21}$ = minor of element $a_{21}$ = c

$M_{22}$ = minor of element $a_{22}$ = a

and finding cofactors of $a_{ij}$ is $A_{ij}$ = $(-1)^{i+j}M_{ij}$.

Therefore we have:

$A_{11} = (-1)^{1+1}M_{11} = (-1)^2(d) = d$

$A_{12} = (-1)^{1+2}M_{12} = (-1)^3(b) = -b$

$A_{21} = (-1)^{2+1}M_{21} = (-1)^3(c) = -c$

$A_{22} = (-1)^{2+2}M_{22} = (-1)^4(a) = a$

Question:2(i) Write Minors and Cofactors of the elements of following determinants:

$\small \begin{vmatrix} 1 & 0 &0 \\ 0 &1 &0 \\ 0 &0 &1 \end{vmatrix}$

Given determinant : $\begin{vmatrix} 1 & 0 &0 \\ 0 &1 &0 \\ 0 &0 &1 \end{vmatrix}$

Finding Minors: by the definition,

$M_{11} =$ minor of $a_{11} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 1$ $M_{12} =$ minor of $a_{12} = \begin{vmatrix} 0 &0 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 0$

$M_{13} =$ minor of $a_{13} = \begin{vmatrix} 0 &1 \\ 0 &0 \end{vmatrix} = 0$ $M_{21} =$ minor of $a_{21} = \begin{vmatrix} 0 &0 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 0$

$M_{22} =$ minor of $a_{22} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 1$ $M_{23} =$ minor of $a_{23} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 0 &0 \end{vmatrix} = 0$

$M_{31} =$ minor of $a_{31} = \begin{vmatrix} 0 &0 \\ 1 &0 \end{vmatrix} = 0$ $M_{32} =$ minor of $a_{32} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 0 &0 \end{vmatrix} = 0$

$M_{33} =$ minor of $a_{33} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 1$

Finding the cofactors:

$A_{11}=$ cofactor of $a_{11} = (-1)^{1+1}M_{11} = 1$

$A_{12}=$ cofactor of $a_{12} = (-1)^{1+2}M_{12} = 0$

$A_{13}=$ cofactor of $a_{13} = (-1)^{1+3}M_{13} = 0$

$A_{21}=$ cofactor of $a_{21} = (-1)^{2+1}M_{21} = 0$

$A_{22}=$ cofactor of $a_{22} = (-1)^{2+2}M_{22} = 1$

$A_{23}=$ cofactor of $a_{23} = (-1)^{2+3}M_{23} = 0$

$A_{31}=$ cofactor of $a_{31} = (-1)^{3+1}M_{31} = 0$

$A_{32}=$ cofactor of $a_{32} = (-1)^{3+2}M_{32} = 0$

$A_{33}=$ cofactor of $a_{33} = (-1)^{3+3}M_{33} = 1$.

Question:2(ii) Write Minors and Cofactors of the elements of following determinants:

$\small \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 &4 \\ 3 & 5 &-1 \\ 0 &1 &2 \end{vmatrix}$

Given determinant : $\begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 &4 \\ 3 & 5 &-1 \\ 0 &1 &2 \end{vmatrix}$

Finding Minors: by the definition,

$M_{11} =$ minor of $a_{11} = \begin{vmatrix} 5 &-1 \\ 1 &2 \end{vmatrix} = 11$ $M_{12} =$ minor of $a_{12} = \begin{vmatrix} 3 &-1 \\ 0 &2 \end{vmatrix} = 6$

$M_{13} =$ minor of $a_{13} = \begin{vmatrix} 3 &5 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 3$ $M_{21} =$ minor of $a_{21} = \begin{vmatrix} 0 &4 \\ 1 &2 \end{vmatrix} = -4$

$M_{22} =$ minor of $a_{22} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &4 \\ 0 &2 \end{vmatrix} = 2$ $M_{23} =$ minor of $a_{23} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 0 &1 \end{vmatrix} = 1$

$M_{31} =$ minor of $a_{31} = \begin{vmatrix} 0 &4 \\ 5 &-1 \end{vmatrix} = -20$

$M_{32} =$ minor of $a_{32} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &4 \\ 3 &-1 \end{vmatrix} = -1-12=-13$

$M_{33} =$ minor of $a_{33} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &0 \\ 3 &5 \end{vmatrix} = 5$

Finding the cofactors:

$A_{11}=$ cofactor of $a_{11} = (-1)^{1+1}M_{11} = 11$

$A_{12}=$ cofactor of $a_{12} = (-1)^{1+2}M_{12} = -6$

$A_{13}=$ cofactor of $a_{13} = (-1)^{1+3}M_{13} = 3$

$A_{21}=$ cofactor of $a_{21} = (-1)^{2+1}M_{21} = 4$

$A_{22}=$ cofactor of $a_{22} = (-1)^{2+2}M_{22} = 2$

$A_{23}=$ cofactor of $a_{23} = (-1)^{2+3}M_{23} = -1$

$A_{31}=$ cofactor of $a_{31} = (-1)^{3+1}M_{31} = -20$

$A_{32}=$ cofactor of $a_{32} = (-1)^{3+2}M_{32} = 13$

$A_{33}=$ cofactor of $a_{33} = (-1)^{3+3}M_{33} = 5$.

Question:3 Using Cofactors of elements of second row, evaluate .$\small \Delta =\begin{vmatrix} 5 &3 &8 \\ 2 & 0 & 1\\ 1 &2 &3 \end{vmatrix}$

Given determinant : $\small \Delta =\begin{vmatrix} 5 &3 &8 \\ 2 & 0 & 1\\ 1 &2 &3 \end{vmatrix}$

First finding Minors of the second rows by the definition,

$M_{21} =$ minor of $a_{21} = \begin{vmatrix} 3 &8 \\ 2 &3 \end{vmatrix} =9-16 = -7$

$M_{22} =$ minor of $a_{22} = \begin{vmatrix} 5 &8 \\ 1 &3 \end{vmatrix} = 15-8=7$

$M_{23} =$ minor of $a_{23} = \begin{vmatrix} 5 &3 \\ 1 &2 \end{vmatrix} = 10-3 =7$

Finding the Cofactors of the second row:

$A_{21}=$ Cofactor of $a_{21} = (-1)^{2+1}M_{21} = 7$

$A_{22}=$ Cofactor of $a_{22} = (-1)^{2+2}M_{22} = 7$

$A_{23}=$ Cofactor of $a_{23} = (-1)^{2+3}M_{23} = -7$

Therefore we can calculate $\triangle$ by sum of the product of the elements of the second row with their corresponding cofactors.

Therefore we have,

$\triangle = a_{21}A_{21} + a_{22}A_{22} + a_{23}A_{23} = 2(7) +0(7) +1(-7) =14-7=7$

Question:4 Using Cofactors of elements of third column, evaluate $\small \Delta =\begin{vmatrix} 1 &x &yz \\ 1 &y &zx \\ 1 &z &xy \end{vmatrix}$

Given determinant : $\small \Delta =\begin{vmatrix} 1 &x &yz \\ 1 &y &zx \\ 1 &z &xy \end{vmatrix}$

First finding Minors of the third column by the definition,

$M_{13} =$ minor of $a_{13} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &y \\ 1 &z \end{vmatrix} =z-y$

$M_{23} =$ minor of $a_{23} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &x \\ 1 &z \end{vmatrix} = z-x$

$M_{33} =$ minor of $a_{33} = \begin{vmatrix} 1 &x \\ 1 &y \end{vmatrix} =y-x$

Finding the Cofactors of the second row:

$A_{13}=$ Cofactor of $a_{13} = (-1)^{1+3}M_{13} = z-y$

$A_{23}=$ Cofactor of $a_{23} = (-1)^{2+3}M_{23} = x-z$

$A_{33}=$ Cofactor of $a_{33} = (-1)^{3+3}M_{33} = y-x$

Therefore we can calculate $\triangle$ by sum of the product of the elements of the third column with their corresponding cofactors.

Therefore we have,

$\triangle = a_{13}A_{13} + a_{23}A_{23} + a_{33}A_{33}$

$= (z-y)yz + (x-z)zx +(y-x)xy$

$=yz^2-y^2z + zx^2-xz^2 + xy^2-x^2y$

$=z(x^2-y^2) + z^2(y-x) +xy(y-x)$

$= (x-y) \left [ zx+zy-z^2-xy \right ]$

$=(x-y)\left [ z(x-z) +y(z-x) \right ]$

$= (x-y)(z-x)[-z+y]$

$= (x-y)(y-z)(z-x)$

Thus, we have value of $\triangle = (x-y)(y-z)(z-x)$.

Question:5 If $\small \Delta =\begin{vmatrix} a{_{11}} & a_1_2 & a_1_3\\ a_2_1 & a_2_2 & a_2_3\\ a_3_1 &a_3_2 &a_3_3 \end{vmatrix}$ and $\small A{_{ij}}$ is Cofactors of $\small a{_{ij}}$ , then the value of $\small \Delta$ is given by

(A) $\small a_1_1A_3_1+a_1_2A_3_2+a_1_3A_3_3$

(B) $\small a_1_1A_1_1+a_1_2A_2_1+a_1_3A_3_1$

(C) $\small a_2_1A_1_1+a_2_2A_1_2+a_2_3A_1_3$

(D) $\small a_1_1A_1_1+a_2_1A_2_1+a_3_1A_3_1$

Answer is (D)$\small a_1_1A_1_1+a_2_1A_2_1+a_3_1A_3_1$ by the definition itself, $\small \Delta$ is equal to the product of the elements of the row/column with their corresponding cofactors.

More about NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 4 Exercise 4.4:-

In this article, you will get NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4 consists of five questions related to finding minor and cofactors of a determinant. There are four examples given before this NCERT exercise. After these examples, you will easily solve Class 12th Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4 problems. This NCERT book exercise is very useful for all the upcoming exercises of this chapter. You are advised to be thorough with this exercise to understand the next exercise.

Also Read| Determinants Class 12 Chapter 4 Notes

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 4 Exercise 4.4:-

• NCERT solutions for Class 12 Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4 are helpful when you are not able to solve NCERT problems.
• These questions are prepared by our experienced experts who will give the best content for the board exam based on NCERT syllabus.
• Exercise 4.4 Class 12 Maths solutions are designed in a descriptive manner so you will understand them very easily.
• If you have solved all the NCERT problems, you can try to solve previous years' papers to get familiar board exam patterns.
• You can take Class 12 Maths chapter 4 exercise 4.4 solutions for quick revision before the exam.

Also see-

What Does ‘Pi’ In Maths Have To Do With Your Phone Number? Find Out Here 4 min read Mar 05, 2022 Read More Class 10 NSTSE 5-Year Analysis: Which Chapters Get More Weightage And Why 9 min read Apr 11, 2022 Read More

• NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 4

• NCERT Exemplar Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 4

## NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Subject Wise

• NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths

• NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics

• NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

• NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Subject Wise NCERT Exampler Solutions

• NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12th Maths

• NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12th Physics

• NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12th Chemistry

• NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 12th Biology

Happy learning!!!