Difference Between Resistance and Resistivity

Difference Between Resistance and Resistivity

What do you mean by resistance?

A quality of an electric circuit or a component of an electric circuit that converts electric energy into thermal energy in the presence of an opposing electric current is known as resistance. Collisions of current carrying charged particles with fixed particles that make up the conductor structure cause resistance. Despite the fact that resistance is present in every part of a circuit, including connecting wires and electric transmission lines, it is commonly assumed to be confined to devices where it predominates, such as lamps, heaters, and resistors.

What is resistivity class 10? Define resistivity class 10 or Define resistivity of a conductor (Definition of resistivity class 10)

Resistivity definition or Resistivity meaning - The resistivity of a substance is defined as the resistance of a cube of that substance with unit-length edges, with the assumption that current flows normal to opposite faces and is dispersed uniformly across them.

At a given temperature, electrical resistivity is defined as the electrical resistance per unit length and cross-sectional area.

The ohmmetre (m) is the SI unit for electrical resistivity. The Greek letter rho is widely used to represent it.

Also read -

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics
  • NCERT Solutions for All Subjects

Resistivity has real-world implications.

The ability to use the proper materials in the right places in electrical and electronic components is dependent on the resistivity of materials.

Conductive materials, like those used in electrical and general connecting wire, must have a low level of resistance. This means that the wire's resistance will be low for a given cross sectional area. Knowing the characteristics of a material, such as its resistivity, is essential for choosing the right one.

What is Resistance?

Resistance in an electrical circuit is the amount of resistance to current flow (also known as ohmic resistance or electrical resistance). Resistance in ohms is represented by the Greek letter omega (Ω).

Mathematically, the resistance of a conducting material is given by;


R=ρla Ω


R= resistance of conductor.

l = length of the conductor.

a = cross-sectional area of the conductor.

Rho is the resistivity of the material.

The greater the resistance, the greater the obstacle to current flow.

Unit of electrical resistance

The electrical resistance is measured in ohms, which is the SI unit for a resistor. The ohm unit is named after Georg Simon Ohm, a great German physicist and mathematician.

The resistance of conducting material is determined to be— directly proportional to the material's length and inversely proportional to the material's cross-sectional area, depending on the material's nature and temperature.

When a potential difference is introduced to a conductor, current begins to flow or free electrons begin to move. The unbound electrons collide with the conductor's atoms and molecules as they move.

The passage of electrons or electric current is slowed due to collisions or obstructions. As a result, we can conclude that there is some resistance to electron or current flow. Thus, resistance refers to a substance's opposition to the flow of electric current.

Also check-

  • NCERT Exemplar Class 11th Physics Solutions
  • NCERT Exemplar Class 12th Physics Solutions
  • NCERT Exemplar Solutions for All Subjects

Difference between Resistance and Resistivity

Understanding the differences between resistance and resistivity is an essential component of physics education. Furthermore, the movement of free electrons is a significant distinction between resistance and resistivity. In addition, resistance is a property that prevents free electrons from flowing freely. Resistivity, on the other hand, is a property of any substance that describes its resistance in a specific dimension. Knowing the concept or Difference between Resistance and resistivity will help you deal with more complicated electrical topics.

The physical property of a substance that opposes the flow of current, i.e. electrons, is called resistance.Resistivity is a physical property of a certain substance that has specific dimensions.
Resistance is related to both length and temperature, but inversely proportional to the material's cross-sectional area.The nature and temperature of a material's resistivity are only proportionate to one another.
Temperature, Length, and Conductor Cross Sectional Area Effect resistanceTemperature effect Resistivity
R = ρ(L/A)ρ = Resistivityρ = (R×A)/LHere: R = Resistance; L= Length; A = Cross-sectional area
Ohms is the SI unit of resistance.Ohms-meter is the SI unit for resistivity.
The resistance property is applied in a variety of applications, including heaters, fuses, and sensors.For calcareous soil, electrical resistivity measurement is used as a quality control test.