Mole Concept Basics - Overview, Structure, Properties & Uses

Mole Concept Basics - Overview, Structure, Properties & Uses

Mole concept Basics

Mole definition: The Mole concept Basics is defined in chemistry as the amount of a substance that contains exactly 6.02214076*1023 units of the substance.

Mole concept: What does it mean?

Moles concept basics are convenient units of measurement for expressing a substance's volume. Any measurement has two components: the numerical magnitude and the unit in which it is expressed. In this case, two kilograms is the magnitude and kg is the unit when the mass of the ball is measured. Anatomic (or molecular) particle consists of an enormous number of atoms; even a gram of pure elements contains over 1,000 atoms. In this context, moles are widely used. Specifically, it examines the mole, a unit of measurement that counts thousands of particles.

Also read -

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry

  • NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

  • NCERT Solutions for All Subjects

What is a mole meaning?

It is not only the types of atoms or ions that make up a substance that determine its identity, but also their quantities within them. As an example, water, H2O, and hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, share the fact both contain hydrogen and oxygen atoms as their respective molecules. Hydrogen peroxide contains two oxygen atoms, whereas water contains only one, so the two substances exhibit very different properties. Modern instruments can measure these defining microscopic qualities directly; however, these characteristics were initially derived from measurements of macroscopic properties (the mass and volume of bulk portions of substance) using relatively simple tools (balances and volumetric vessels). The mole, which remains crucial to modern chemical science, was introduced as a unit of the number of substances because of this experimental approach.

The Mole concept Basics of a substance is equal to 12 grams of pure 12C with the same number of discrete substances (atoms, molecules, ions, etc.) as the number of atoms in that sample. As moles are commonly referred to as bulks or large masses in Latin, it makes sense that they are used to describe this unit. It links a macroscopic property such as bulk mass with a fundamental property such as the number of atoms, molecules, etc. Experiments have determined the number of molecules in a mole concept basics as 6.02214179×1023 There is a fundamental constant named Avogadro's number (NA) after Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro. The unit of measurement for this constant is "per mole", which has a convenient rounding process 6.022×1023/mol.

According to the definition of a mole, 12 g of 12C contains 1 mole is equal to 12C atoms (its molar mass is 12 g/mol). Since the atomic masses of all elements are measured in relation to that of 12C, the reference substance for AMU calculations, we have this relationship. As can be seen by the vastly different magnitudes of their respective units (amu versus g), atomic mass and molar mass are numerically equivalent, but their scales are vastly different.


Average atomic mass

Molar Mass(g/mol)






















Thus, the chemical formula mass in AMU is the same as the molecular mass of a compound in grams. Imagine a tiny drop of water weighing just 0.03 grams as an illustration of the enormity of the mole. A single drop of water contains 100 billion times more molecules than all the people on the planet combined.

A small amount of water (18 g) represents just a fraction of a mole concept formula basics of water, but it contains more water molecules than anyone can imagine. Approximately seven billion people on earth would receive more than 100 billion molecules if the molecules were distributed equally. In chemistry, a mole chemistry is equal to 6.022×1023.

Formulas and Related Quantities

Atomic and Molecular Mass

Atomic mass units (amu) measure the mass of an atom of an element. The mass of one atom of the element is assigned an average value based on the abundance of the element's various isotopes. Atomic masses are calculated using carbon's mass of 12.011 atomic mass units. Carbon samples typically contain 98.89% of carbon-12, 1.11% of carbon-13, and trace amounts of carbon-14. However, the atomic masses of these isotopes differ. A carbon-12 atom has an atomic mass of 12 atomic mass units, but a carbon-13 atom has an atomic mass of 13. The atomic weight of an element is roughly equal to the sum of all its protons and neutrons.

The molecular mass of an element equals the sum of the atomic masses of all its constituent elements. Also known as atomic mass, this quantity is also expressed as an atomic mass unit. As a result, the molecular mass of water equals the sum of its components, hydrogen, and oxygen. Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.00794 amu and oxygen has an atomic mass of 15.9994 amu. The molecular mass of water molecules is 18.0154 amu since they contain only one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms.

Molar Mass

A substance's molar mass is determined as the mass of one mole of the substance. A measure of thermodynamic efficiency is often expressed in terms of g/mol (grams per mole). It is however, expressed as kg/mol in SI units. To calculate the molar mass, use the formula below:

Molar Mass of substance=Mass in GramsNumber of Moles.

The molar mass of water, for example, is approximately 18.015 g / mol, which is the mass of NA number of water molecules.

Gram Atomic Mass and Gram Molecular Mass

A gram of an element's atomic mass is equal to one mole concept formula basics of that element. Similarly, the gram molecular mass of a compound refers to the mass of one Mole concept Basics of the compound. As a result, the gram atomic mass of hydrogen is approximately 1.007g, and the gram molecular mass of water is approximately 18.015g.


An element or compound's molecular mass can be calculated by dividing the total mass of the sample by its molar mass, which is described by the following formula.

Moles=Mass of SampleMolar Mass.

You can calculate the total number of atoms/molecules in a sample by multiplying the number of moles by the Avogadro constant. The formula is:

Atoms or Molecules=Number of Moles6.022*1023.

This is the relationship between an atomic mass unit (amu) and a gram:

1 amu=1 gram6.022*1023=1.66*10-24grams

Therefore, the atomic mass of an element is equal to its molecular mass in grams.

Also check-

  • NCERT Exemplar Class 11th Chemistry Solutions

  • NCERT Exemplar Class 12th Chemistry Solutions

  • NCERT Exemplar Solutions for All Subjects