Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Class 12th Notes- Free NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes- Download PDF

The NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 notes are very important for the exam. Students will study about the preparation, characteristics, and reactivity of alcohols, phenols, and ethers in this chapter. This chapter addresses some of the most fundamental topics in organic chemistry, as well as their industrial applications. NCERT Class 12 Chemistry chapter 11. NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 notes provides a brief synopsis of the chapter for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school-based annual examinations.

Also, students can refer,

  • NCERT Notes Class 12 Chemistry
  • NCERT solutions for class 12 Chemistry chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • NCERT exemplar class 12 Chemistry chapter 11 solutions Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 1

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Classification of alcohols and phenols

  • Alcohols and phenols are classed as monohydric, dihydric, trihydric, or polyhydric depending on how many hydroxyl groups they have in their molecules: one, two, three, or many, respectively

  • Alcohols with the OH group connected to a primary, secondary, or tertiary carbon atom are known as primary (1°), secondary (2°), and tertiary (3°) alcohols.

  • Allylic alcohol is made up of an -OH group attached to an sp3 hybridized carbon next to a carbon carbon double bond, whereas benzylic alcohol is made up of an -OH group attached to an sp3 hybridized carbon close to an aromatic ring. Alcohols having -OH group bonded to carbon-carbon double bond is called vinylic alcohol

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 2

Structure of alcohols and phenols

Alcohols have sp3 hybridized oxygen atoms and hybrid atomic orbitals in a tetrahedral configuration. The R group determines the value of the LROH bond angle. Due to lone pair repulsion, this angle for of methyl alcohol is (C – O – H) 108.9°.The -OH group in phenols is connected to sp2 hybridized carbon, giving the C – O bond a partial double bond nature.

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NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 3

Preparation of alcohols

  • From alkenes

This reaction is in accordance with Markonikov's rule, through acid catalyzed hydration.

CH3CH=CH2 + H2O → CH3-CH(OH) - CH3

  • By hydroboration-oxidation

  • By reduction of aldehydes and ketones

RCHO + H2 → R CH2OH

  • By reduction of carboxylic acids

  • From Grignard reagents

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 4

Preparation of Phenols

  • From haloarenes

  • From benzenesulfonicacid

  • From diazonium salts

  • From cumenes

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 5

Physical properties of alcohols and phenols

Lower alcohols are colourless liquids, C5–C11 alcohols are oily liquids, and C12 and higher alcohols are waxy solids. Alcohols are miscible with water because their hydroxyl groups can form H-bonds with water. With increasing molecular mass, solubility decreases. Because polar molecules have intermolecular hydrogen bonding, the boiling points of alkanes are greater than expected.

These are colourless liquids or crystalline solids that turn coloured over time due to gradual oxidation in the presence of air. Carboxylic acid is another name for phenol. Phenols establish intermolecular H-bonds with other phenol molecules and with water due to the presence of a polar -OH bond.

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 6

Chemical reactions of alcohols and phenols

  • Acidity of alcohols and phenols

Reaction with metals

Acidity of alcohols

  • The polar nature of the OH bond causes the acidity of alcohols.

  • Order of acidity

Primary > Secondary Tertiary

  • Alcohols are weaker acids than water

Acidity of phenols

Because the phenoxide ion is stabilized through resonance, phenol is more acidic than alcohols. The presence of an electron withdrawing group raises phenol's acidity by stabilizing the phenoxide ion, whereas the presence of an electron releasing group lowers phenol's acidity by destabilizing the phenoxide ion.

  • Esterification

Ar/R-OH + (RCO,)2O + H+↔ Ar/ROCOR, + RCOOH

R/ArOH + R,COCl Pyridine→ R/ArOCOR, + HCl

  • Reaction with hydrogen halides

ROH + HX yields→ RX + H2O

  • Dehydration

Alcohols H+, Heat→ Alkene + H2O

Order of reaction

Tertiary > Secondary > Primary

  • Oxidation

Alcohol Acidified KMnO4→ Carboxylic acid

RCH2OH Oxidation→ RCHO yields→ RCOOH

  • Reactions of phenol

  • Halogenation

  • Nitration

  • Reimer-Tiemann reaction

  • Kolbe’s reaction

  • Reaction with zinc dust

  • Oxidation

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 7

Some commercially important alcohols

  • Methanol (CH3OH)

  • Wood-spirit is another name for it. It is a clear liquid with no discernible colour. It reaches a temperature of 337 degrees Fahrenheit when it boils. It is extremely poisonous. Even little doses can cause blindness, and excessive doses can even result in death

  • Preparation

CO + 2H2 ZnO-Cr2O3,200-300 atm,573-673 K→ CH3OH

  • Uses: Paints, varnishes, and other products use it as a solvent.It can be used to make formaldehyde.

  • Ethanol (C2H5OH)

  • It is known as denatured spirit when combined with CuSO4 and pyridine.It is a colourless liquid having boiling point 351 K

  • Preparation

C12H22O11 + H2O Invertase→ C6H12O6 Glucose+ C6H12O6 Fructose

C6H12O6 Zymase→ 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

  • Uses: It is a good solvent, Sterilization of surgical tools in laboratories and hospitals.

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 8

Preparation of ether

  • By dehydration of alcohols

CH3CH2OH+ H2SO4,443 K→ CH2= CH2

CH3CH2OH + H2SO4,413 K→ C2H5OC2H5

  • Williamson synthesis

R-X + R-O-Na yields→ R-O-R + NaX

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 9

Physical properties of ethers

Since ethers' C-O bonds are polar, they have a net dipole moment. Their boiling points are equivalent to alkanes with similar molecular weights, although they are lower than alcohols. It's because ethers don't have H-bonding. Ether miscibility with water is similar to that of alcohols of same molar mass. It's because ethers, like alcohols, can make H-bonds with water.

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Notes: Topic 10

Chemical properties of ethers

  • Cleavage of C-O bonds

R-O-R + HX yields→ RX + R-OH

R-OH + HX yields R-X + H2O

R-O-R + HX yields→ R-X + R-OH

  • Electrophilic substitution reactions

  • Halogenation

  • Friedel craft’s reaction

  • Nitration

Significance of NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 11 notes

Chapter 11 is a significant chapter in terms of board exams, and Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers class 12th notes can help you grasp the fundamental principles. This chapter is also useful for entrance exams and competitive exams like VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE Core, NEET, etc. As a result, knowledge of that chapter becomes much more important. Class 12 chemistry chapter 11 notes make it easy to go over the entire chapter 11 in a few minutes. One of the best exam-day strategies given by lecturers is to take Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers class 12th notes. Students can study offline by downloading Class 12 chemistry chapter 11 notes pdf download .

NCERT class 12 notes Chapter-wise

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Subject wise NCERT solutions

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