Chemistry in Everyday Life Class 12th Notes - Free NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Notes- Download PDF

The chapter, chemistry in everyday life is the continuation of the NCERT chapter, polymers. The ncert class 12 chemistry chapter 16 Notes covers a brief outline of the chapter on chemistry in everyday life. The main topics covered in class 12th chemistry chapter 16 notes are drugs & classification of drugs, drug-target interaction, Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs, Chemicals in Food, Cleansing Agents & everything related to general everyday chemistry.. ncert class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes also include a brief introduction to some important day to day substances like Tranquilizers, Analgesics, Antimicrobials, Antibiotics. Antiseptics & disinfectants, Antifertility Drugs, etc. Class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes also cover the basic chemical equations in the chapter. The mechanism of working of drugs on the human body is also covered in the CBSE class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes. Some solved examples related to the mentioned topic are also included in chemistry in everyday life class 12 notes. The learner can download all the listed topics from the Class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes pdf download.

Also, students can refer,

  • NCERT Notes Class 12 Chemistry
  • NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 16 chemistry in everyday life
  • NCERT exemplar class 12 chemistry chapter 16 solutions chemistry in everyday life

NCERT class 12 chemistry chapter 16 Notes

Chemistry in everyday life class 12th notes - Topic 1:

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Drugs are chemicals with low molecular masses. Drugs interact with macromolecule targets due to which a biological response is produced.

When this biological response is therapeutic & useful & is used in the diagnosis, prevention, & treatment of diseases these chemicals are termed as medicines.

Chemotherapy is the processing of using chemicals for therapeutic effect.

Drugs can be classified on the basis of the following criteria:

CriteriaDescriptionExamples
Pharmacological effect
  • Developed on the pharmacological effect of a drug.
  • Beneficial for doctors as it provides them the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a specific type of problem.
antiseptics kill/arrest the growth of microorganisms, analgesics have a painkilling effect.
Drug action
  • Developed on the activity of a drug on a specific biochemical process.
antihistamines inhibit the action histamine.
Chemical structure
  • Developed on the chemical structure of the drug
  • have similar pharmacological activity & common structural features
Sulphonamides have common structural features.
Molecular targets
  • Developed on the interaction of drugs with biomolecules (target molecules)
  • Similar structural features may have the same mechanism of attack on target molecules.
  • most useful classification

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Notes- Topic 2:

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Drug target interaction:

Enzymes are proteins that perform as biological catalysts in the body.

Receptors are the enzymes crucial for proper communication in the body.

Polar molecules are carried by the carrier proteins across the cell membrane.

The genetic information of the cell is coded in Nucleic acids.

The structural parts of the cell membrane are made up of lipids & carbohydrates.

Enzymes as Drug Targets:

  • The catalytic action of enzymes

Enzymes perform 2 major functions during their catalytic activity:

  • The enzyme holds the substrate in the active sites at suitable positions for a chemical reaction to occur efficiently. Different types of interactions can be used to hold together the substrate(s) to the active site such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interaction, ionic bonding, or dipole-dipole interactions.

  • The enzyme is provide functional groups to attack the substrate & carry out chemical reactions.

  • Drug-enzyme interaction

Drugs inhibit the activities of enzymes. Drugs act as obstacles & hinder the binding site of the enzyme & preventing the binding of substrate. Drugs also inhibit the catalytic activity of the enzyme thus referred to as enzyme inhibitors.

The attachment of substrate on the active site of enzymes can be inhibited by drugs in two different ways:

  • The drugs that compete with the assigned substrate for their embodiment on the active sites of enzymes are called Competitive inhibitors.

  • Some drugs choose to bind to a different site of the enzyme termed as allosteric site. When inhibitor drug binds at the allosteric site the shape of the active site changes and thus the substrate cannot recognize it.

  • Due to the formation of a strong covalent bond between an enzyme & an inhibitor, the enzyme gets blocked permanently. Due to the blockage of enzymes, the body degrades the enzyme-inhibitor complex & synthesizes a new enzyme.

Receptors as Drug Targets:

  • The proteins called Receptors are essential as they help in communication process of the body.

  • The majority of receptors are embedded in the membranes of cells in a way such that their small part possessing active site projects out of the surface of the cell membrane & opens on the exterior of the cell membrane.

  • Chemical messengers are chemicals that help in transmitting messages between two neurons & between the neurons & muscles.

  • The binding site of the receptor protein receives the chemical messengers. To accommodate chemical messengers, the shape of the receptor site changes.

  • This marks the end of transferring process.

  • This is the process of giving messages by chemical messenger to the cell without entering the cell.

  • Antagonists are the drugs that inhibit the natural function of receptors by binding to the receptor site.

  • Agonists are the drugs that switch on the receptor & mimic the natural messenger.

Chemistry in everyday life Class 12th Notes- Topic 3:

Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs:

  • Antacids:

  • Cimetidine (Tegamet) was developed to obstruct the interaction of histamine with the receptors present in the stomach wall as these receptors trigger the secretion of pepsin & HCl in the stomach.

  • Another drug ranitidine (Zantac) was discovered later.

  • Antihistamines:

Some characteristics of histamines-

  • potent vasodilator

  • contracts the smooth muscles in the bronchi & gut

  • relaxes other muscles

  • responsible for the nasal congestion

  • responsible for an allergic response to pollen.

Antihistamines interfere with the natural action of histamine. They do so by competing with histamine for binding sites of the receptor protein.

  • Neurologically Active Drugs:

Neurologically Active Drugs can be classified as:

  1. Tranquilizers

  2. Analgesics

Tranquilizers & analgesics affect the message transfer mechanism between the nerve to the receptor.

  • Tranquilizers

  • They are used for the treatment of mild or even severe mental diseases & for the treatment of stress.

  • They relieve stress, anxiety, excitement, or irritability by inducing a sense of well-being.

  • They are an essential component in the composition of sleeping pills.

  • Different types of tranquilizers function by different mechanisms.

  • Antidepressant drugs inhibit the enzymes which catalyze the degradation of noradrenaline are used when a person suffers from depression. Example - Iproniazid, phenelzine, etc.

  • Mild tranquilizers e.g., Chlordiazepoxide & Meprobamate are suitable for relieving tension.

  • For controlling depression & hypertension, Equanil is used.

  • Barbiturates which are Derivatives of barbituric acid viz., veronal, amytal, Nembutal, luminal are hypnotic, i.e., sleep-producing agents.

  • valium & serotonin are some other substances used as tranquilizers.

The summary of these tranquilizers is tabulated below:

Category

Function

Example

Antidepressant drugs

They inhibit the action of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of noradrenaline.

Iproniazid, phenelzine, etc.

Mild tranquilizers

They are suitable for relieving tension.

Chlordiazepoxide & Meprobamate

Barbiturates

sleep-producing agents (hypnotic)

Derivatives of barbituric acid

Other antidepressant drugs

They are used for the treatment of depression & hypertension.

Equanil

Other tranquilizers

They are used in the treatment of stress, mild or severe mental diseases.

Valium & serotonin

  • Analgesics:

Analgesics reduce or abolish pain without r disturbing the nervous system. They are classified in 2 categories:

  1. Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics

  2. Narcotic drugs

  • Non-narcotic (non-addictive) analgesics:

The main characteristics are given below:

  1. They inhibit the synthesis of inflammation & pain-causing chemicals like prostagl&ins.

  2. They are effective in relieving skeletal pain.

  3. They help in reducing fever (antipyretic).

  4. They help in preventing platelet coagulation.

  5. They are used in the prevention of heart attacks.

Example - aspirin, paracetamol, etc.

  • Narcotic analgesics:

The main characteristics are given below:

  1. They relieve pain.

  2. They produce sleep

  3. They produce coma, stupor, convulsions & ultimately death when taken in poisonous doses.

  4. They are obtained from the opium poppy thus called opiates.

  5. They are used for the relief of postoperative pain

  6. They are used for the relief of cardiac pain

  7. They are used for the relief of terminal cancer

  8. They are used for the relief of childbirth

Example - morphine & its homologs.

  • Antimicrobials

Antimicrobial drugs prevent the development or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes. Antibacterial drugs are used to deal with concerns related to bacteria. Antifungal drugs are used to deal with fungi. Antiviral drugs are used to deal with viruses. Antiparasitic drugs are used to deal with parasites.

  • Antibiotics:

Antibiotics are less toxic for humans & animals & are used as drugs to treat infections.

Antibiotics are substances produced partly or wholly by chemical synthesis. Antibiotics intervene in the metabolic process by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms or destroying microorganisms.

Paul Ehrlich developed the medicine, arsphenamine, known as salvarsan for syphilis, & got the Nobel prize for Medicine in 1908. In 1932, he developed prontosil.

Antibiotics have either a killing effect or an inhibitory effect on microbes & thus are classified as Bactericidal & Bacteriostatic respectively. Examples of both categories are tabulated below:

Bactericidal

Bacteriostatic

Penicillin

Tetracycline

Erythromycin

Ofloxacin

Aminoglycosides

Chloramphenicol

An antibiotic’s spectrum of the range indicates the range of bacteria or other microorganisms that are affected by that antibiotic.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics kill or inhibit a wide range of Gram-negative & Gram-positive bacteria. Example - Ampicillin, Amoxycillin. Some other important examples are given below:

Name of broad-spectrum antibiotic

Function

Chloramphenicol

Used in the treatment of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, a certain form of urinary infections, meningitis, & pneumonia.

Vancomycin

It is used to treat colitis.

Ofloxacin

Used to treat bacterial infections.

Dysidazirine

It is toxic to certain specific

strains of cancer cells.

Narrow spectrum antibiotics are effective mainly against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Example - Penicillin G.

Limited spectrum antibiotics are effective against a particular type of organism or disease.

  • Antiseptics & disinfectants:

Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues & diseased skin surfaces. Example - soframicine, furacine, Dettol ( mixture of chloroxylenol & terpineol), Bithionol, tincture of iodine, Boric acid in dilute aqueous solution, etc.

Disinfectants are applied to surfaces of inanimate objects. By varying the concentration, the same substances can act as antiseptic as well as disinfectants. For example - 0.2 % solution of phenol is an antiseptic. 1 % solution of phenol is a disinfectant.

Antifertility Drugs

Birth control pills are made up of a mixture of synthetic estrogen & progesterone derivatives. Example - Norethindrone (synthetic progesterone), ethynylestradiol/novestrol (synthetic estrogen).

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Notes - Topic 4

Chemicals in food

Artificial Sweetening Agents

Some important artificial sweetening agents are given below:

Artificial sweetener

Description

Sweetness value in comparison to cane sugar

Aspartame

  1. most successful & widely used artificial sweetener.

  2. methyl ester of dipeptide produced from aspartic acid & phenylalanine

  3. Used in cold foods & soft drinks as it is unstable at cooking temperature.

100

Saccharin

550

Sucralose

  1. trichloro derivative of sucrose

  2. appearance & taste are like sugar

  3. stable at cooking temperature

  4. does not provide calories

600

Alitame

  1. high potency sweetener

  2. more stable than aspartame

  3. Controlling the sweetness of food is difficult.

2000

Food Preservatives:

Salt, sugar, vegetable oils, sodium benzoate, salts of sorbic acid, & propanoic acid are used to prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth.

Class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes - Topic 5

Cleansing Agents:

Soaps :

Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acids used for cleaning purposes. Example - oleic, stearic & palmitic acids. Soaps are formed by the process of saponification which involves heating fat with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution.

Types of soaps:

  • Toilet soaps

  • Soaps that float in water

  • Transparent soaps

  • medicated soaps

  • Shaving soaps

  • Laundry soaps

  • Soap granules

  • Soap powders

  • scouring soaps

Note: soaps do not work in hard water due to the presence of calcium & magnesium ions which on reaction with Na/K soaps form insoluble soap of Ca/Mg or scum.

Synthetic Detergents:

Synthetic detergents can be used in both hard & soft water. These are classified into 3 categories tabulated below:

Type

Description

Uses

Example

Anionic Detergents

  • Na salts of sulphonated long-chain hydrocarbons or alcohols

  • The cleansing action is done by the anionic part.

Used for household work

Used in toothpaste

Sodium salts of alkyl benzene sulphonates

Cationic Detergents

  • Quarternary NH3 salts of amines having chlorides, acetates, or bromides as anions

  • The cationic part is made up of a long hydrocarbon chain & an N atom.

  • Have germicidal properties & are expensive

Used in hair conditioners


Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Non-ionic Detergents

  • Do not contain any ion

  • Persist in water even after sewage treatment

  • Causes foaming & pollution in water bodies.

Liquid dishwashing

Liquid dishwashing detergents

Significance of ncert class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes

Chemistry in everyday life class 12th notes will be helpful to revise the chapter & to get an idea about the main topics covered in the chapter. These ncert class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes are effective to cover the main topics of the class 12 CBSE chemistry syllabus (Link) & are helpful for competitive exams like VITEEE, BITSAT, JEE Core, NEET, etc. Important topics covered can be downloaded from Class 12 chemistry chapter 16 notes pdf download.

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